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Social Security and Retirement across the OECD

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  • Jorge Alonso-Ortiz

    (Centro de Investigacion Economica (CIE), Instituto Tecnologico Autonomo de Mexico (ITAM))

Abstract

Employment to population ratios differ markedly across OECD countries relative to rates in the U.S., especially for persons aged 55-69. Social security features also differ across the OECD, particularly with respect to replacement rates, entitlement ages and earnings tests. I conjecture that differences in social security features explain many differences in employment to population ratios at older ages. I assess my conjecture quantitatively with a life cycle general equilibrium model of retirement. At ages 60-64 the correlation between my model’s simulations and observed data is about two thirds. The replacement rate and the earnings test explain 90% of observed variability, implying that differences in entitlement ages do not explain differences in employment to population rates at older ages.

Suggested Citation

  • Jorge Alonso-Ortiz, 2010. "Social Security and Retirement across the OECD," Working Papers 1007, Centro de Investigacion Economica, ITAM.
  • Handle: RePEc:cie:wpaper:1007
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    2. Christian vom Lehn & Eric Fisher & Aspen Gorry, 2018. "Male Labor Supply and Generational Fiscal Policy," Review of Economic Dynamics, Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics, vol. 28, pages 121-149, April.
    3. Alexander Bick & Nicola Fuchs-Schündeln, 2018. "Taxation and Labour Supply of Married Couples across Countries: A Macroeconomic Analysis," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 85(3), pages 1543-1576.
    4. Catalina Amuedo‐Dorantes & Laura Juarez & Jorge Alonso, 2019. "The Effect Of Noncontributory Pensions On Saving In Mexico," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 57(2), pages 931-952, April.
    5. Eric French & John Bailey Jones, 2017. "Health, Health Insurance, and Retirement: A Survey," Annual Review of Economics, Annual Reviews, vol. 9(1), pages 383-409, September.
    6. Alexander Bick & Bettina Brüggemann & Nicola Fuchs-Schündeln, 2016. "Hours Worked in Europe and the US: New Data, New Answers," CESifo Working Paper Series 6068, CESifo.
    7. Brecht Boone & Freddy Heylen, 2019. "Cross‐Country Differences in Unemployment: Fiscal Policy, Unions, and Household Preferences in General Equilibrium," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 121(3), pages 1270-1302, July.
    8. Alexander Bick & Nicola Fuchs-Schündeln & David Lagakos, 2018. "How Do Hours Worked Vary with Income? Cross-Country Evidence and Implications," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 108(1), pages 170-199, January.
    9. Madeira, Carlos, 2022. "The impact of the Chilean pension withdrawals during the Covid pandemic on the future savings rate," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 126(C).
    10. Selahattin Imrohoroglu & Sagiri Kitao, 2010. "Social Security, Benefit Claiming and Labor Force Participation: A Quantitative General Equilibrium Approach," Working Papers, Center for Retirement Research at Boston College wp2010-02, Center for Retirement Research, revised Mar 2010.
    11. Bick, Alexander & Brüggemann, Bettina & Fuchs-Schündeln, Nicola & Paule-Paludkiewicz, Hannah, 2019. "Long-term changes in married couples' labor supply and taxes: Evidence from the US and Europe since the 1980s," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 118(C), pages 44-62.
    12. Alexander Bick & Bettina Brüggemann & Nicola Fuchs‐Schündeln, 2019. "Hours Worked in Europe and the United States: New Data, New Answers," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 121(4), pages 1381-1416, October.
    13. Jorge Alonso & Catalina Amuedo-Dorantes & Laura Juárez, 2016. "The Effect of Non-contributory Pensions on Saving in Mexico," IDB Publications (Working Papers) 95976, Inter-American Development Bank.
    14. Sita Slavov & Devon Gorry & Aspen Gorry & Frank N. Caliendo, 2019. "Social Security and Saving: An Update," Public Finance Review, , vol. 47(2), pages 312-348, March.
    15. OSHIO Takashi & SHIMIZUTANI Satoshi & OISHI Akiko, 2019. "Addressing the Institutional Disincentives to Elderly Employment in Japan," Discussion papers 19080, Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry (RIETI).
    16. Freddy Heylen & Renaat Van de Kerckhove, 2014. "Heterogeneous ability and the effects of fiscal policy on employment, income and welfare in general equilibrium," Working Papers of Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, Ghent University, Belgium 14/898, Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration.
    17. Bick, Alexander & Fuchs-Schündeln, Nicola & Lagakos, David, 2016. "How do Average Hours Worked Vary with Development? Cross-Country Evidence and Implications," CEPR Discussion Papers 11092, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    18. Bogataj, David & Battini, Daria & Calzavara, Martina & Persona, Alessandro, 2019. "The ageing workforce challenge: Investments in collaborative robots or contribution to pension schemes, from the multi-echelon perspective," International Journal of Production Economics, Elsevier, vol. 210(C), pages 97-106.
    19. Heylen Freddy & Van de Kerckhove Renaat, 2013. "Employment by age, education, and economic growth: effects of fiscal policy composition in general equilibrium," The B.E. Journal of Macroeconomics, De Gruyter, vol. 13(1), pages 1-55, October.
    20. Daniel Vuuren, 2014. "Flexible Retirement," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 28(3), pages 573-593, July.
    21. Oshio, Takashi & Shimizutani, Satoshi & Oishi, Akiko S., 2020. "Examining how elderly employment is associated with institutional disincentives in Japan," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 56(C).
    22. Fu Zhiming & Wu Liang & Zhuang Ziguan, 2019. "Labor supply, income distribution, and tax progressivity in a search model," The B.E. Journal of Macroeconomics, De Gruyter, vol. 19(1), pages 1-18, January.
    23. Frank N. Caliendo & Maria Casanova & Aspen Gorry & Sita Slavov, 2016. "The Welfare Cost of Retirement Uncertainty," NBER Working Papers 22609, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    24. Eytan Sheshinski & Frank N. Caliendo, 2021. "Social Security and the increasing longevity gap," Journal of Public Economic Theory, Association for Public Economic Theory, vol. 23(1), pages 29-52, February.
    25. Alonso-Ortiz, Jorge, 2013. "Taxes, Transfers and the Macroeconomy," MPRA Paper 49569, University Library of Munich, Germany.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Social Security; Retirement; Idiosyncratic Labor Income Risk;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • E24 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Consumption, Saving, Production, Employment, and Investment - - - Employment; Unemployment; Wages; Intergenerational Income Distribution; Aggregate Human Capital; Aggregate Labor Productivity
    • H53 - Public Economics - - National Government Expenditures and Related Policies - - - Government Expenditures and Welfare Programs
    • J14 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of the Elderly; Economics of the Handicapped; Non-Labor Market Discrimination
    • J26 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Retirement; Retirement Policies

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