IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/ags/uersib/265270.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

The Global Landscape of Agricultural Trade, 1995-2014

Author

Listed:
  • Beckman, Jayson
  • Dyck, John
  • Heerman, Kari

Abstract

Global agricultural trade, about $1 trillion in 2014, has been rising about 3.6 percent per year for the last two decades, facilitated by technological change and productivity gains, as well as trade liberalization. In addition, trade patterns have shifted and trade policy has evolved. The largest importers and exporters of agricultural products are largely unchanged over the last 20 years, but five countries—Brazil, Russia, India, Indonesia, and China—account for much of the increase in trade. The landscape of policies affecting trade is increasingly complex, and agricultural trade is facing obstacles that may restrict future growth. Despite trade rules such as in the World Trade Organization, countries impose trade barriers. High tariffs are permitted for many products in many countries. Rising domestic support in some countries could undermine a level playing field for agricultural trade. Moreover, sanitary and phytosanitary barriers and other technical barriers to trade are growing, with disagreements about the scientific basis for rejecting products becoming particularly contentious. This report surveys 20 years (1995-2014) of trends in world agricultural trade (1995-2016 for some measures of U.S. agricultural trade) and summarizes key policy issues that will confront decision makers and shape agricultural trade in the coming years.

Suggested Citation

  • Beckman, Jayson & Dyck, John & Heerman, Kari, 2017. "The Global Landscape of Agricultural Trade, 1995-2014," Economic Information Bulletin 265270, United States Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service.
  • Handle: RePEc:ags:uersib:265270
    DOI: 10.22004/ag.econ.265270
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://ageconsearch.umn.edu/record/265270/files/eib-181.pdf
    Download Restriction: no

    File URL: https://ageconsearch.umn.edu/record/265270/files/eib-181.pdf?subformat=pdfa
    Download Restriction: no

    File URL: https://libkey.io/10.22004/ag.econ.265270?utm_source=ideas
    LibKey link: if access is restricted and if your library uses this service, LibKey will redirect you to where you can use your library subscription to access this item
    ---><---

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Mikhaylov, Andrey Sergeyevich, 2013. "Международные Кластерные Инициативы Как Форма Реализации Кластерной Политики Стран Региона Балтийского Моря," EconStor Open Access Articles and Book Chapters, ZBW - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, pages 169-173.
    2. Hiau LooiKee & Alessandro Nicita & Marcelo Olarreaga, 2009. "Estimating Trade Restrictiveness Indices," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 119(534), pages 172-199, January.
    3. Henson, Spencer & Reardon, Thomas, 2005. "Private agri-food standards: Implications for food policy and the agri-food system," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 30(3), pages 241-253, June.
    4. Russell Hillberry & Xiaohui Zhang, 2018. "Policy and performance in customs: Evaluating the trade facilitation agreement," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 26(2), pages 438-480, May.
    5. Estrades, Carmen, 2015. "The Role of Export Restrictions in Agriculture Trade," 2015: Trade and Societal Well-Being, December 13-15, 2015, Clearwater Beach, Florida 229229, International Agricultural Trade Research Consortium.
    6. Daniel Pick, 2008. "Geographical Indications and the Competitive Provision of Quality in Agricultural Markets," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 90(3), pages 794-812.
    7. David Zilberman & Gal Hochman & Deepak Rajagopal & Steve Sexton & Govinda Timilsina, 2013. "The Impact of Biofuels on Commodity Food Prices: Assessment of Findings," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 95(2), pages 275-281.
    8. Disdier, Anne‐Célia & Emlinger, Charlotte & Fouré, Jean, 2016. "Interdependencies between Atlantic and Pacific agreements: Evidence from agri-food sectors," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 55(C), pages 241-253.
    9. Anne-Célia Disdier & Lionel Fontagné, 2010. "Trade impact of European measures on GMOs condemned by the WTO panel," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 146(3), pages 495-514, September.
    10. Everett Peterson & Jason Grant & Donna Roberts & Vuko Karov, 2013. "Evaluating the Trade Restrictiveness of Phytosanitary Measures on U.S. Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Imports," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 95(4), pages 842-858.
    11. Fulponi, Linda, 2006. "Private voluntary standards in the food system: The perspective of major food retailers in OECD countries," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 31(1), pages 1-13, February.
    12. John Humphrey, 2012. "Convergence of US and EU Production Practices Under the New FDA Food Safety Modernization Act," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 35(8), pages 994-1005, August.
    13. Richard Baldwin & Javier Lopez-Gonzalez, 2015. "Supply-chain Trade: A Portrait of Global Patterns and Several Testable Hypotheses," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 38(11), pages 1682-1721, November.
    14. Will Martin & Kym Anderson, 2006. "Agricultural Trade Reform and the Doha Development Agenda," World Bank Publications - Books, The World Bank Group, number 6889, December.
    15. Rada, Nicholas E. & Valdes, Constanza, 2012. "Policy, Technology, and Efficiency of Brazilian Agriculture," Economic Research Report 127498, United States Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service.
    16. Dyck, John & Arita, Shawn, 2014. "Japan’s Agri-Food Sector and the Trans-Pacific Partnership," Economic Information Bulletin 188127, United States Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service.
    17. Cristina Constantinescu & Aaditya Mattoo & Michele Ruta, 2020. "The Global Trade Slowdown: Cyclical or Structural?," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 34(1), pages 121-142.
    18. Diao, Xinshen & Elbehri, Aziz & Gehlhar, Mark J. & Gibson, Paul R. & Leetmaa, Susan E. & Mitchell, Lorraine & Nelson, Frederick J. & Nimon, R. Wesley & Normile, Mary Anne & Roe, Terry L. & Shapouri, S, 2001. "Agricultural Policy Reform In The Wto: The Road Ahead," Agricultural Economic Reports 34015, United States Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service.
    19. Anderson, Kym, 2009. "Krueger/Schiff/Valdés Revisited: Agricultural Price and Trade Policy Reform in Developing Countries since 1960," CEPR Discussion Papers 7601, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    20. Tim Josling, 2006. "The War on Terroir: Geographical Indications as a Transatlantic Trade Conflict," Journal of Agricultural Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 57(3), pages 337-363, September.
    21. Landes, Maurice R. & Jha, Shikha & Srinivasan, P.V., 2007. "Indian Wheat and Rice Sector Policies and the Implications of Reform," Economic Research Report 6386, United States Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service.
    22. Matthews, Alan & Salvatici, Luca & Scoppola, Margherita, 2017. "Trade Impacts of Agricultural Support in the EU," Commissioned Papers 252767, International Agricultural Trade Research Consortium.
    23. Zahniser, Steven & Cooke, Bryce, 2015. "U.S.-Cuba Agricultural Trade: Past, Present, and Possible Future," Amber Waves:The Economics of Food, Farming, Natural Resources, and Rural America, United States Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, issue 07, pages 1-1, August.
    24. Josling, Timothy E. & Roberts, Donna & Orden, David, 2004. "Food Regulation And Trade: Toward A Safe And Open Global System -- An Overview And Synopsis," 2004 Annual meeting, August 1-4, Denver, CO 20008, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association).
    25. Zahniser, Steven & Moreno, Adriana Herrera, 2014. "North American Agricultural Trade Policy: Are Super-Regionalism and Deeper Regional Integration the "Next Big Thing" after NAFTA," Estey Centre Journal of International Law and Trade Policy, Estey Centre for Law and Economics in International Trade, vol. 15(2), pages 1-33.
    26. David Orden & John Beghin & Guy Henry, 2012. "Key Findings of the NTM-IMPACT Project," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 35(8), pages 967-972, August.
    27. Muhammad, Andrew & Meade, Birgit Gisela Saager & Regmi, Anita & Seale, James L., 2011. "International Evidence on Food Consumption Patterns: An Update Using 2005 International Comparison Program Data," Technical Bulletins 120252, United States Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service.
    28. Dohlman, Erik & Gehlhar, Mark J., 2007. "U.S. Trade Growth: A New Beginning or a Repeat of the Past?," Amber Waves:The Economics of Food, Farming, Natural Resources, and Rural America, United States Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, pages 1-8, September.
    29. Krueger, Anne O & Schiff, Maurice & Valdes, Alberto, 1988. "Agricultural Incentives in Developing Countries: Measuring the Effect of Sectoral and Economywide Policies," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 2(3), pages 255-271, September.
    30. Beckman, Jayson & Riche, Stephanie, 2015. "Changes To The Natural Gas, Corn, And Fertilizer Price Relationships From The Biofuels Era," Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 47(4), pages 494-509, November.
    31. Bruce A. Babcock & Roxanne Clemens, 2004. "Geographical Indications and Property Rights: Protecting Value-Added Agricultural Products," Midwest Agribusiness Trade Research and Information Center (MATRIC) Publications (archive only) 04-mbp7, Center for Agricultural and Rural Development (CARD) at Iowa State University.
    32. Evdokia Moïsé & Silvia Sorescu, 2013. "Trade Facilitation Indicators: The Potential Impact of Trade Facilitation on Developing Countries' Trade," OECD Trade Policy Papers 144, OECD Publishing.
    33. Timothy E. Josling & Donna Roberts & David Orden, 2004. "Food Regulation and Trade: Toward a Safe and Open Global System," Peterson Institute Press: All Books, Peterson Institute for International Economics, number 347, July.
    34. Giovanni Anania & Rosanna Nisticò, 2004. "Public Regulation as a Substitute for Trust in Quality Food Markets: What if the Trust Substitute cannot be Fully Trusted?," Journal of Institutional and Theoretical Economics (JITE), Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen, vol. 160(4), pages 681-701, December.
    35. Burfisher, Mary E., 2001. "The Road Ahead: Agricultural Policy Reform In The Wto -- Summary Report," Agricultural Economic Reports 34067, United States Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service.
    36. Ben Shepherd, 2013. "Trade times, importing and exporting: firm-level evidence," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 20(9), pages 879-883, June.
    37. Lars Brink, 2009. "WTO Constraints on Domestic Support in Agriculture: Past and Future," Canadian Journal of Agricultural Economics/Revue canadienne d'agroeconomie, Canadian Agricultural Economics Society/Societe canadienne d'agroeconomie, vol. 57(1), pages 1-21, March.
    38. Orden, David, 2013. "The Changing Structure of Domestic Support and Its Implications for Trade," Commissioned Papers 146657, Canadian Agricultural Trade Policy Research Network.
    39. Piermartini, Roberta, 2004. "The role of export taxes in the field of primary commodities," WTO Discussion Papers 4, World Trade Organization (WTO), Economic Research and Statistics Division.
    40. Wainio, John & Dyck, John & Meade, Birgit Gisela Saager & Mitchell, Lorrarine & Zahniser, Steven & Arita, Shawn & Beckman, Jayson F. & Burfisher, Mary E., 2014. "Agriculture in the Trans-Pacific Partnership," Economic Research Report 188429, United States Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service.
    41. Maria Bowman & Kandice K. Marshall & Fred Kuchler & Lori Lynch, 2016. "Raised Without Antibiotics: Lessons from Voluntary Labeling of Antibiotic Use Practices in The Broiler Industry," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 98(2), pages 622-642.
    42. Kym Anderson, 2010. "Krueger, Schiff, and Valdés Revisited: Agricultural Price and Trade Policy Reform in Developing Countries since 1960," Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 32(2), pages 195-231.
    43. Johan Swinnen, 2016. "Economics and politics of food standards, trade, and development," Agricultural Economics, International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 47(S1), pages 7-19, November.
    44. Brink, Lars & Orden, David & Datz, Giselle, 2017. "BRIC agricultural policies through a WTO Lens:," IFPRI book chapters, in: Bouët, Antoine & Laborde Debucquet, David (ed.), Agriculture, development, and the global trading system: 2000– 2015, chapter 5, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
    45. Hungerford, Ashley & O'Donoghue, Erik, 2016. "Federal Crop Insurance Options for Upland Cotton Farmers and Their Revenue Effects," Economic Research Report 249774, United States Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service.
    46. Linda Fulponi & Matthew Shearer & Juliana Almeida, 2011. "Regional Trade Agreements - Treatment of Agriculture," OECD Food, Agriculture and Fisheries Papers 44, OECD Publishing.
    47. Hungerford, Ashley & Astill, Gregory & Effland, Anne, 2017. "Changes to the Noninsured Crop Disaster Assistance Program Under the Agricultural Act of 2014: Their Potential Risk Reduction Impacts," Economic Information Bulletin 262132, United States Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service.
    48. Henson, Spencer & Caswell, Julie, 1999. "Food safety regulation: an overview of contemporary issues," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 24(6), pages 589-603, December.
    49. Jared Greenville & Kentaro Kawasaki & Raphaël Beaujeu, 2017. "How policies shape global food and agriculture value chains," OECD Food, Agriculture and Fisheries Papers 100, OECD Publishing.
    50. Grant, Jason & Arita, Shawn, 2017. "Sanitary and Phyto-Sanitary Measures: Assessment, Measurement, and Impact," Commissioned Papers 259417, International Agricultural Trade Research Consortium.
    51. Will Martin & Kym Anderson, 2006. "The Doha Agenda Negotiations on Agriculture: What Could They Deliver?," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 88(5), pages 1211-1218.
    52. Effland, Anne, 2011. "Classifying and Measuring Agricultural Support: Identifying Differences Between the WTO and OECD Systems," Economic Information Bulletin 291948, United States Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service.
    53. Gale, Fred, 2013. "Growth and Evolution in China's Agricultural Support Policies," Economic Research Report 155385, United States Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service.
    54. Mark, Tyler B. & Burdine, Kenneth H. & Cessna, Jerry & Dohlman, Erik, 2016. "The Effects of the Margin Protection Program for Dairy Producers," Economic Research Report 262192, United States Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service.
    55. Philip C. Abbott, 2002. "Tariff-rate quotas: failed market access instruments?," European Review of Agricultural Economics, Foundation for the European Review of Agricultural Economics, vol. 29(1), pages 109-130, March.
    56. Gale, Fred & Hansen, James & Jewison, Michael, 2015. "China’s Growing Demand for Agricultural Imports," Economic Information Bulletin 198800, United States Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service.
    57. Peter S. Liapis, 2013. "How Export Restrictive Measures Affect Trade of Agricultural Commodities," OECD Food, Agriculture and Fisheries Papers 63, OECD Publishing.
    58. Díaz-Bonilla, Eugenio, 2014. "On food security stocks, peace clauses, and permanent solutions after Bali:," IFPRI discussion papers 1388, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Beckman, Jayson & Burfisher, Mary & Mitchell, Lorraine & Arita, Shawn, 2021. "Hidden obstacles to trade: The case of the EU’s Ban on beef hormones," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 43(6), pages 1332-1343.
    2. Jayson Beckman & Carmen Estrades & Angel Aguiar, 2019. "Export taxes, food prices and poverty: a global CGE evaluation," Food Security: The Science, Sociology and Economics of Food Production and Access to Food, Springer;The International Society for Plant Pathology, vol. 11(1), pages 233-247, February.
    3. Jayson Beckman & Munisamy Gopinath & Kamron Daugherty, 2021. "Options for ASEAN trade expansion: Within, plus three or six, European Union or the United States?," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 44(5), pages 1177-1204, May.
    4. Jafari, Yaghoob & Britz, Wolfgang & Guimbard, Houssein & Beckman, Jayson, 2021. "Properly capturing tariff rate quotas for trade policy analysis in computable general equilibrium models," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 104(C).
    5. Beckman, Jayson, 2021. "Reforming Market Access in Agricultural Trade: Tariff Removal and the Trade Facilitation Agreement," USDA Miscellaneous 310408, United States Department of Agriculture.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Grant, Jason & Arita, Shawn, 2017. "Sanitary and Phyto-Sanitary Measures: Assessment, Measurement, and Impact," Commissioned Papers 259417, International Agricultural Trade Research Consortium.
    2. Timothy E. Josling & Stefan Tangermann, 2015. "Transatlantic Food and Agricultural Trade Policy," Books, Edward Elgar Publishing, number 15889, June.
    3. Arita, Shawn & Mitchell, Lorraine & Beckman, Jayson, 2015. "Estimating the Effects of Selected Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures and Technical Barriers to Trade on U.S.-EU Agricultural Trade," Economic Research Report 212887, United States Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service.
    4. Fabio Gaetano Santeramo & Emilia Lamonaca, 2019. "The Effects of Non‐tariff Measures on Agri‐food Trade: A Review and Meta‐analysis of Empirical Evidence," Journal of Agricultural Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 70(3), pages 595-617, September.
    5. Anderson, Kym & Martin, Will & van der Mensbrugghe, Dominique, 2013. "Estimating Effects of Price-Distorting Policies Using Alternative Distortions Databases," Handbook of Computable General Equilibrium Modeling, in: Peter B. Dixon & Dale Jorgenson (ed.), Handbook of Computable General Equilibrium Modeling, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 0, pages 877-931, Elsevier.
    6. Santeramo, Fabio G., 2017. "On Non-Tariff Measures and Changes in Trade Routes: From North-North to South-South Trade?," 2017 International Congress, August 28-September 1, 2017, Parma, Italy 263493, European Association of Agricultural Economists.
    7. Neeliah, Harris & Neeliah, Shalini Amnee, 2014. "Changing Agro-food Export Composition and SPS Compliance: Lessons for Mauritius," Estey Centre Journal of International Law and Trade Policy, Estey Centre for Law and Economics in International Trade, vol. 15(1), pages 1-23.
    8. Fabio Gaetano Santeramo & Emilia Lamonaca, 2019. "On the impact of non-tariff measures on trade performances of the African agri-food sector," Agrekon, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 58(4), pages 389-406, October.
    9. Cororaton, Caesar B. & Orden, David, 2016. "Potential Economic Effects of the Reduction in Agricultural and Nonagricultural Trade Barriers in the Transatlantic and Investment Partnership," Proceedings Issues, 2016: Climate Change and International Agricultural Trade in the Aftermath of COP21, December 11-13, 2016, Scottsdale, Arizona 252425, International Agricultural Trade Research Consortium.
    10. Kym Anderson & Ernesto Valenzuela, 2021. "What impact are subsidies and trade barriers abroad having on Australasian and Brazilian agriculture?," Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Australian Agricultural and Resource Economics Society, vol. 65(2), pages 265-290, April.
    11. C. Larochez-Dupraz & M. Huchet-Bourdon, 2016. "Agricultural support and vulnerability of food security to trade in developing countries," Food Security: The Science, Sociology and Economics of Food Production and Access to Food, Springer;The International Society for Plant Pathology, vol. 8(6), pages 1191-1206, December.
    12. John C. Beghin & Miet Maertens & Johan Swinnen, 2017. "Nontariff Measures and Standards in Trade and Global Value Chains," World Scientific Book Chapters, in: John Christopher Beghin (ed.), Nontariff Measures and International Trade, chapter 2, pages 13-38, World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
    13. John C. Beghin & Heidi Schweizer, 2021. "Agricultural Trade Costs," Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy, John Wiley & Sons, vol. 43(2), pages 500-530, June.
    14. Laroche Dupraz, C. & Postolle, A., 2013. "Food sovereignty and agricultural trade policy commitments: How much leeway do West African nations have?," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(C), pages 115-125.
    15. Meloni, Giulia & Swinnen, Johan, 2018. "Trade and terroir. The political economy of the world’s first geographical indications," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 81(C), pages 1-20.
    16. Alia, Didier Y. & Zheng, Yuqing & Kusunose, Yoko & Reed, Michael R., 2017. "Trade effects of food regulations and standards: Assessing the impact of SPS measures on market structure," 2017 Annual Meeting, July 30-August 1, Chicago, Illinois 258368, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association.
    17. Catherine Laroche-Dupraz & Marilyne Huchet, 2013. "Impact of domestic support and border measures for developing countries’ food security," Post-Print hal-01123056, HAL.
    18. Santeramo, Fabio Gaetano & Lamonaca, Emilia, 2019. "The role of non-tariff measures in the agri-food sector: positive or negative instruments for trade?," MPRA Paper 96763, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    19. Laroche Dupraz, Catherine & Huchet Bourdon, Marilyne, 2014. "Domestic support and border measures: some instruments to reduce vulnerability of food security to trade in developing countries," 2014 International Congress, August 26-29, 2014, Ljubljana, Slovenia 182691, European Association of Agricultural Economists.
    20. Luca Salvatici & Silvia Nenci, 2017. "New features, forgotten costs and counterfactual gains of the international trading system," European Review of Agricultural Economics, Foundation for the European Review of Agricultural Economics, vol. 44(4), pages 592-633.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Agricultural and Food Policy; International Relations/Trade;

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:ags:uersib:265270. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/ersgvus.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: AgEcon Search (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/ersgvus.html .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.