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Option Pricing using Realized Volatility

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  • Lars Stentoft

    () (School of Economics and Management, University of Aarhus, Denmark and CREATES)

Abstract

In the present paper we suggest to model Realized Volatility, an estimate of daily volatility based on high frequency data, as an Inverse Gaussian distributed variable with time varying mean, and we examine the joint properties of Realized Volatility and asset returns. We derive the appropriate dynamics to be used for option pricing purposes in this framework, and we show that our model explains some of the mispricings found when using traditional option pricing models based on interdaily data. We then show explicitly that a Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroskedastic model with Normal Inverse Gaussian distributed innovations is the corresponding benchmark model when only daily data is used. Finally, we perform an empirical analysis using stock options for three large American companies, and we show that in all cases our model performs significantly better than the corresponding benchmark model estimated on return data alone. Hence the paper provides evidence on the value of using high frequency data for option pricing purposes.

Suggested Citation

  • Lars Stentoft, 2008. "Option Pricing using Realized Volatility," CREATES Research Papers 2008-13, Department of Economics and Business Economics, Aarhus University.
  • Handle: RePEc:aah:create:2008-13
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    File URL: ftp://ftp.econ.au.dk/creates/rp/08/rp08_13.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Clark, Peter K, 1973. "A Subordinated Stochastic Process Model with Finite Variance for Speculative Prices," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 41(1), pages 135-155, January.
    2. Lars Stentoft, 2008. "American Option Pricing Using GARCH Models and the Normal Inverse Gaussian Distribution," Journal of Financial Econometrics, Society for Financial Econometrics, vol. 6(4), pages 540-582, Fall.
    3. Robert C. Merton, 2005. "Theory of rational option pricing," World Scientific Book Chapters,in: Theory Of Valuation, chapter 8, pages 229-288 World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
    4. Asger Lunde & Peter R. Hansen, 2005. "A forecast comparison of volatility models: does anything beat a GARCH(1,1)?," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 20(7), pages 873-889.
    5. Torben G. Andersen & Tim Bollerslev & Francis X. Diebold & Paul Labys, 2003. "Modeling and Forecasting Realized Volatility," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 71(2), pages 579-625, March.
    6. Bollerslev, Tim & Chou, Ray Y. & Kroner, Kenneth F., 1992. "ARCH modeling in finance : A review of the theory and empirical evidence," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 52(1-2), pages 5-59.
    7. Peter Reinhard Hansen & Asger Lunde, 2005. "A Realized Variance for the Whole Day Based on Intermittent High-Frequency Data," Journal of Financial Econometrics, Society for Financial Econometrics, vol. 3(4), pages 525-554.
    8. Christoffersen, Peter & Heston, Steve & Jacobs, Kris, 2006. "Option valuation with conditional skewness," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 131(1-2), pages 253-284.
    9. Johnson, Herb & Shanno, David, 1987. "Option Pricing when the Variance Is Changing," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 22(02), pages 143-151, June.
    10. Ser-Huang Poon & Clive W.J. Granger, 2003. "Forecasting Volatility in Financial Markets: A Review," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 41(2), pages 478-539, June.
    11. Peter Christoffersen & Redouane Elkamhi & Bruno Feunou & Kris Jacobs, 2010. "Option Valuation with Conditional Heteroskedasticity and Nonnormality," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 23(5), pages 2139-2183.
    12. Bollerslev, Tim, 1986. "Generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 31(3), pages 307-327, April.
    13. Hull, John C & White, Alan D, 1987. " The Pricing of Options on Assets with Stochastic Volatilities," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 42(2), pages 281-300, June.
    14. Boyle, Phelim P., 1977. "Options: A Monte Carlo approach," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 4(3), pages 323-338, May.
    15. Morten B. Jensen & Asger Lunde, 2001. "The NIG-S&ARCH model: a fat-tailed, stochastic, and autoregressive conditional heteroskedastic volatility model," Econometrics Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 4(2), pages 1-10.
    16. Black, Fischer & Scholes, Myron S, 1973. "The Pricing of Options and Corporate Liabilities," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 81(3), pages 637-654, May-June.
    17. Longstaff, Francis A & Schwartz, Eduardo S, 2001. "Valuing American Options by Simulation: A Simple Least-Squares Approach," University of California at Los Angeles, Anderson Graduate School of Management qt43n1k4jb, Anderson Graduate School of Management, UCLA.
    18. Engle, Robert F, 1982. "Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity with Estimates of the Variance of United Kingdom Inflation," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 50(4), pages 987-1007, July.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Masato Ubukata & Toshiaki Watanabe, 2014. "Pricing Nikkei 225 Options Using Realized Volatility," The Japanese Economic Review, Japanese Economic Association, vol. 65(4), pages 431-467, December.
    2. Andersen, Torben G. & Bollerslev, Tim & Christoffersen, Peter F. & Diebold, Francis X., 2013. "Financial Risk Measurement for Financial Risk Management," Handbook of the Economics of Finance, Elsevier.
    3. Sévi, Benoît, 2014. "Forecasting the volatility of crude oil futures using intraday data," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 235(3), pages 643-659.
    4. Phan, Dinh Hoang Bach & Sharma, Susan Sunila & Narayan, Paresh Kumar, 2016. "Intraday volatility interaction between the crude oil and equity markets," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 40(C), pages 1-13.
    5. Masato Ubukata & Toshiaki Watanabe, 2013. "Pricing Nikkei 225 Options Using Realized Volatility," Global COE Hi-Stat Discussion Paper Series gd12-273, Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi University.
    6. Ubukata, Masato & Watanabe, Toshiaki, 2015. "Evaluating the performance of futures hedging using multivariate realized volatility," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 38(C), pages 148-171.
    7. Contreras, Javier & Rodríguez, Yeny E., 2014. "GARCH-based put option valuation to maximize benefit of wind investors," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 136(C), pages 259-268.
    8. Christoffersen, Peter & Feunou, Bruno & Jeon, Yoontae, 2015. "Option valuation with observable volatility and jump dynamics," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 61(S2), pages 101-120.
    9. repec:dau:papers:123456789/4598 is not listed on IDEAS
    10. Sergii Pypko, 2015. "Volatility Forecast in Crises and Expansions," Journal of Risk and Financial Management, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 8(3), pages 1-26, August.
    11. J. Piplack & M. Beine & B. Candelon, 2009. "Comovements of Returns and Volatility in International Stock Markets: A High-Frequency Approach," Working Papers 09-10, Utrecht School of Economics.
    12. Allen, David E. & McAleer, Michael & Scharth, Marcel, 2011. "Monte Carlo option pricing with asymmetric realized volatility dynamics," Mathematics and Computers in Simulation (MATCOM), Elsevier, vol. 81(7), pages 1247-1256.
    13. Corsi, Fulvio & Fusari, Nicola & La Vecchia, Davide, 2013. "Realizing smiles: Options pricing with realized volatility," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 107(2), pages 284-304.
    14. Yow-Jen Jou & Chih-Wei Wang & Wan-Chien Chiu, 2013. "Is the realized volatility good for option pricing during the recent financial crisis?," Review of Quantitative Finance and Accounting, Springer, vol. 40(1), pages 171-188, January.
    15. Julien Chevallier & Benoît Sévi, 2011. "On the realized volatility of the ECX CO 2 emissions 2008 futures contract: distribution, dynamics and forecasting," Annals of Finance, Springer, vol. 7(1), pages 1-29, February.
    16. Asuka Takeuchi-Nogimori, 2012. "An Empirical Analysis of the Nikkei 225 Put Options Using Realized GARCH Models," Global COE Hi-Stat Discussion Paper Series gd12-241, Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi University.
    17. repec:ipg:wpaper:2014-053 is not listed on IDEAS
    18. Christoffersen, Peter & Feunou, Bruno & Jacobs, Kris & Meddahi, Nour, 2014. "The Economic Value of Realized Volatility: Using High-Frequency Returns for Option Valuation," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 49(03), pages 663-697, June.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Option Pricing; Realized Volatility; Stochastic Volatility; GARCH;

    JEL classification:

    • C22 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Time-Series Models; Dynamic Quantile Regressions; Dynamic Treatment Effect Models; Diffusion Processes
    • C53 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric Modeling - - - Forecasting and Prediction Models; Simulation Methods
    • G13 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - Contingent Pricing; Futures Pricing

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