IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/zbw/glodps/380.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

The Yen Exchange Rate and the Hollowing Out of the Japanese Industry

Author

Listed:
  • Belke, Ansgar
  • Volz, Ulrich

Abstract

Since the demise of the Bretton Woods system, the yen has seen several episodes of strong appreciation, including in the late 1970s, after the 1985 Plaza Agreement, the early and late 1990s and after 2008. These appreciations have not only been associated with “expensive yen recessions” resulting from negative effects on exports; since the late 1980s, the strong yen has also raised concerns about a de-industrialisation of the Japanese economy. Against this backdrop, the paper investigates the effects of changes to the yen exchange rate on the hollowing out of the Japanese industrial sector. To this end, the paper uses both aggregate and industry-specific data to gauge the effects of yen fluctuations on the output and exports of different Japanese industries, exploiting new data for industry-specific real effective exchange rates. Our findings support the view that the periods of yen appreciation had more than just transitory effects on Japanese manufacturing. The results also provide indication of hysteresis effects on manufacturing. While there are certainly also other factors that have contributed to a hollowing out of Japanese industry, a strong yen played a role, too.

Suggested Citation

  • Belke, Ansgar & Volz, Ulrich, 2019. "The Yen Exchange Rate and the Hollowing Out of the Japanese Industry," GLO Discussion Paper Series 380, Global Labor Organization (GLO).
  • Handle: RePEc:zbw:glodps:380
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://www.econstor.eu/bitstream/10419/201568/1/GLO-DP-0380.pdf
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Jose Manuel Campa & Linda S. Goldberg, 2001. "Employment Versus Wage Adjustment And The U.S. Dollar," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 83(3), pages 477-489, August.
    2. Robert Z. Lawrence, 2017. "Recent Manufacturing Employment Growth: The Exception That Proves the Rule," NBER Working Papers 24151, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    3. Moser, Christoph & Urban, Dieter & di Mauro, Beatrice Weder, 2010. "International competitiveness, job creation and job destruction--An establishment-level study of German job flows," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 80(2), pages 302-317, March.
    4. Ken Coutts & Robert Rowthorn, 2013. "De-industrialisation & the Balance of Payments in Advanced Economies," Working Papers wp453, Centre for Business Research, University of Cambridge.
    5. Fukao, Kyoji & Ishido, Hikari & Ito, Keiko, 2003. "Vertical intra-industry trade and foreign direct investment in East Asia," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 17(4), pages 468-506, December.
    6. Thorbecke, Willem & Kato, Atsuyuki, 2018. "Exchange rates and the Swiss economy," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 40(6), pages 1182-1199.
    7. William H. Branson & James P. Love, 1987. "The Real Exchange Rate and Employment in U.S. Manufacturing: State and Regional Results," NBER Working Papers 2435, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    8. Bussière, Matthieu & Saxena, Sweta C. & Tovar, Camilo E., 2012. "Chronicle of currency collapses: Re examining the effects on output," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 31(4), pages 680-708.
    9. Dekle, Robert & Fukao, Kyoji & 深尾, 京司 & フカオ, キョウジ, 2009. "The Japan-U.S. Exchange Rate, Productivity, and the Competitiveness of Japanese Industries," CEI Working Paper Series 2008-25, Center for Economic Institutions, Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi University.
    10. Teresa C. Fort & Justin R. Pierce & Peter K. Schott, 2018. "New Perspectives on the Decline of US Manufacturing Employment," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 32(2), pages 47-72, Spring.
    11. Kaddour Hadri, 2000. "Testing for stationarity in heterogeneous panel data," Econometrics Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 3(2), pages 148-161.
    12. Campa, Jose Manuel, 2004. "Exchange rates and trade: How important is hysteresis in trade?," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 48(3), pages 527-548, June.
    13. Saikkonen, Pentti, 1992. "Estimation and Testing of Cointegrated Systems by an Autoregressive Approximation," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 8(1), pages 1-27, March.
    14. Dani Rodrik, 2008. "The Real Exchange Rate and Economic Growth," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 39(2 (Fall)), pages 365-439.
    15. Yamashita, Nobuaki & Fukao, Kyoji, 2010. "Expansion abroad and jobs at home: Evidence from Japanese multinational enterprises," Japan and the World Economy, Elsevier, vol. 22(2), pages 88-97, March.
    16. Lionel Fontagné & Ann Harrison, 2017. "The Factory-Free Economy. Outsourcing, Servitization, and the Future of Industry," Post-Print halshs-02923043, HAL.
    17. Robert Rowthorn & Ken Coutts, 2004. "De-industrialisation and the balance of payments in advanced economies," Cambridge Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 28(5), pages 767-790, September.
    18. Kappler, Marcus & Reisen, Helmut & Schularick, Moritz & Turkisch, Edouard, 2013. "The Macroeconomic Effects of Large Exchange Rate Appreciations," EconStor Open Access Articles and Book Chapters, ZBW - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, pages 471-494.
    19. Giorgia Giovannetti & Hossein Samiei, 1995. "Hysteresis in Exports," IMF Working Papers 1995/052, International Monetary Fund.
    20. Robert Z. Lawrence, 2017. "Recent US Manufacturing Employment: The Exception that Proves the Rule," Working Paper Series WP17-12, Peterson Institute for International Economics.
    21. Kandil, Magda & Mirzaie, Aghdas, 2002. "Exchange rate fluctuations and disaggregated economic activity in the US: theory and evidence," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 21(1), pages 1-31, February.
    22. SATO Kiyotaka & SHIMIZU Junko & Nagendra SHRESTHA & Shajuan ZHANG, 2015. "Industry-specific Real Effective Exchange Rates in Asia," Discussion papers 15036, Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry (RIETI).
    23. Jeffrey A. Frankel, 1999. "No Single Currency Regime is Right for All Countries or At All Times," NBER Working Papers 7338, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    24. Ansgar Belke & Daniel Gros, 2001. "Real Impacts of Intra-European Exchange Rate Variability: A Case for EMU?," Open Economies Review, Springer, vol. 12(3), pages 231-264, July.
    25. Hervé Boulhol & Lionel Fontagné, 2006. "Deindustrialisation and the Fear of Relocations in the Industry," Working Papers 2006-07, CEPII research center.
    26. Baldwin, Richard E. & Lyons, Richard K., 1994. "Exchange rate hysteresis? Large versus small policy misalignments," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 38(1), pages 1-22, January.
    27. Richard Baldwin & Paul Krugman, 1989. "Persistent Trade Effects of Large Exchange Rate Shocks," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 104(4), pages 635-654.
    28. Bussirère, Matthieu & Lopez, Claude & Tille, Cédric, 2013. "Currency Crises in Reverse: Do Large Real Exchange Rate Appreciations Matter for Growth?," MPRA Paper 44053, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    29. Campa, Jose & Goldberg, Linda S., 1995. "Investment in manufacturing, exchange rates and external exposure," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 38(3-4), pages 297-320, May.
    30. Stock, James H & Watson, Mark W, 1993. "A Simple Estimator of Cointegrating Vectors in Higher Order Integrated Systems," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 61(4), pages 783-820, July.
    31. Pierre-Olivier Gourinchas, 1999. "Exchange Rates and Jobs: What Do We Learn from Job Flows?," NBER Chapters, in: NBER Macroeconomics Annual 1998, volume 13, pages 153-222, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    32. Nicolas Berman & Philippe Martin & Thierry Mayer, 2012. "How do Different Exporters React to Exchange Rate Changes?," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 127(1), pages 437-492.
    33. Im, Kyung So & Pesaran, M. Hashem & Shin, Yongcheol, 2003. "Testing for unit roots in heterogeneous panels," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 115(1), pages 53-74, July.
    34. Kiyotaka Sato & Junko Shimizu & Nagendra Shrestha & Shajuan Zhang, 2013. "Industry-specific Real Effective Exchange Rates and Export Price Competitiveness: The Cases of Japan, China, and Korea," Asian Economic Policy Review, Japan Center for Economic Research, vol. 8(2), pages 298-321, December.
    35. Klein, Michael W. & Schuh, Scott & Triest, Robert K., 2003. "Job creation, job destruction, and the real exchange rate," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 59(2), pages 239-265, March.
    36. Goldberg, Linda S, 1993. "Exchange Rates and Investment in United States Industry," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 75(4), pages 575-588, November.
    37. Ansgar Belke & Dominik Kronen, 2019. "Exchange rate bands of inaction and hysteresis in EU exports to the global economy: The role of uncertainty," Journal of Economic Studies, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 46(2), pages 335-355, March.
    38. Uemura, Hiroyasu & Tahara, Shinji, 2014. "The Transformation of Growth Regime and De-industrialization in Japan," Revue de la Régulation - Capitalisme, institutions, pouvoirs, Association Recherche et Régulation, vol. 15.
    39. Takagi, Shinji, 1991. "Foreign exchange market intervention and domestic monetary control in Japan, 1973-1989," Japan and the World Economy, Elsevier, vol. 3(2), pages 147-180, September.
    40. SATO Kiyotaka & SHIMIZU Junko & Nagendra SHRESTHA & Shajuan ZHANG, 2012. "Industry-specific Real Effective Exchange Rates for Japan," Discussion papers 12044, Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry (RIETI).
    41. Maddala, G S & Wu, Shaowen, 1999. "A Comparative Study of Unit Root Tests with Panel Data and a New Simple Test," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 61(0), pages 631-652, Special I.
    42. Levy-Yeyati, Eduardo & Sturzenegger, Federico & Gluzmann, Pablo Alfredo, 2013. "Fear of appreciation," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 101(C), pages 233-247.
    43. Ansgar Belke & Matthias Göcke & Martin Günther, 2013. "Exchange Rate Bands Of Inaction And Play-Hysteresis In German Exports—Sectoral Evidence For Some Oecd Destinations," Metroeconomica, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 64(1), pages 152-179, February.
    44. Choi, In, 2001. "Unit root tests for panel data," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 20(2), pages 249-272, April.
    45. THORBECKE, Willem, 2012. "The Short- and Long-Run Effects of Exchange Rate Changes on the Japanese Electronics Industry," Discussion papers 12019, Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry (RIETI).
    46. White, Halbert, 1980. "A Heteroskedasticity-Consistent Covariance Matrix Estimator and a Direct Test for Heteroskedasticity," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 48(4), pages 817-838, May.
    47. Mr. Ramana Ramaswamy & Mr. Bob Rowthorn, 1997. "Deindustrialization: Causes and Implications," IMF Working Papers 1997/042, International Monetary Fund.
    48. Paul R. Krugman, 1988. "Deindustrialization, Reindustrialization, and the Real Exchange Rate," NBER Working Papers 2586, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    49. Michael Bleaney, 1997. "Invoicing-Currency Effects in the Pricing of Japanese Exports of Manufactures," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 30(4), pages 968-974, November.
    50. Fontagne, Lionel & Harrison, Ann (ed.), 2017. "The Factory-Free Economy: Outsourcing, Servitization, and the Future of Industry," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780198779162.
    51. Newey, Whitney & West, Kenneth, 2014. "A simple, positive semi-definite, heteroscedasticity and autocorrelation consistent covariance matrix," Applied Econometrics, Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA), vol. 33(1), pages 125-132.
    52. MacKinnon, James G. & White, Halbert, 1985. "Some heteroskedasticity-consistent covariance matrix estimators with improved finite sample properties," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 29(3), pages 305-325, September.
    53. Mohsen Bahmani-Oskooee & Ida A. Mirzaie & Ilir Miteza, 2007. "Sectoral Employment, Wages and the Exchange Rate: Evidence from the U.S," Eastern Economic Journal, Eastern Economic Association, vol. 33(1), pages 125-136, Winter.
    54. Alfaro, Laura & Cunat, Alejandro & Fadinger, Harald & Yanping, Liu, 2017. "The real exchange rate, innovation and productivity," Working Papers 17-04, University of Mannheim, Department of Economics.
    55. Hamada, Koichi & Okada, Yasushi, 2009. "Monetary and international factors behind Japan's lost decade," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 23(2), pages 200-219, June.
    56. Ansgar Belke & Matthias Göcke, 2005. "Real Options Effects on Employment: Does Exchange Rate Uncertainty Matter for Aggregation?," German Economic Review, Verein für Socialpolitik, vol. 6(2), pages 185-203, May.
    57. Baldwin, Richard, 1990. "Hysteresis in Trade," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 15(2), pages 127-142.
    58. William H. Branson & James P. Love, 1986. "Dollar Appreciation and Manufacturing Employment and Output," NBER Working Papers 1972, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    59. Matthieu Bussière & Claude Lopez & Cédric Tille, 2015. "Do real exchange rate appreciations matter for growth?," Economic Policy, CEPR;CES;MSH, vol. 30(81), pages 5-45.
    60. Ekholm, Karolina & Moxnes, Andreas & Ulltveit-Moe, Karen Helene, 2012. "Manufacturing restructuring and the role of real exchange rate shocks," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 86(1), pages 101-117.
    61. G. S. Maddala & Shaowen Wu, 1999. "A Comparative Study of Unit Root Tests with Panel Data and a New Simple Test," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 61(S1), pages 631-652, November.
    62. Bahmani-Oskooee Mohsen & Mirzaie Aghdas, 2000. "The Long-Run Effects of Depreciation of The Dollar on Sectoral Output," International Economic Journal, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 14(3), pages 51-61.
    63. SATO Kiyotaka & SHIMIZU Junko & Nagendra SHRESTHA & Shajuan ZHANG, 2013. "Exchange Rate Appreciation and Export Price Competitiveness: Industry-specific real effective exchange rates of Japan, Korea, and China," Discussion papers 13032, Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry (RIETI).
    64. Douglas L. Campbell, 2013. "Relative Prices, Hysteresis, and the Decline of American Manufacturing," 2013 Papers pca584, Job Market Papers.
    65. Levin, Andrew & Lin, Chien-Fu & James Chu, Chia-Shang, 2002. "Unit root tests in panel data: asymptotic and finite-sample properties," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 108(1), pages 1-24, May.
    66. Paul R. Krugman & Richard E. Baldwin, 1987. "The Persistence of the U.S. Trade Deficit," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 18(1), pages 1-56.
    67. Ana L. Revenga, 1992. "Exporting Jobs?The Impact of Import Competition on Employment and Wages in U. S. Manufacturing," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 107(1), pages 255-284.
    68. Kandil, Magda & Mirzaie, Ida Aghdas, 2003. "The effects of dollar appreciation on sectoral labor market adjustments: Theory and evidence," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 43(1), pages 89-117.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Ying Wu & Xin Deng, 2022. "Macroeconomic Impacts of the US External Imbalances with Two Large Emerging Asian Economies: Japan (1970–1990) versus China (2000–2018)," Comparative Economic Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Association for Comparative Economic Studies, vol. 64(2), pages 255-279, June.
    2. KATO Atsuyuki, 2019. "Exchange Rates and Intra- and Inter-Firm Trade in Japan," Discussion papers 19082, Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry (RIETI).
    3. Bampi, Rodrigo E. & Colombo, Jefferson A., 2021. "Heterogeneous effects of foreign exchange appreciation on industrial output: Evidence from disaggregated manufacturing data," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 80(C), pages 431-451.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Campbell, Douglas L., 2020. "Relative Prices and Hysteresis: Evidence from US Manufacturing," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 129(C).
    2. José Abraham López Machuca & Jorge Eduardo Mendoza Cota, 2017. "Salarios, desempleo y productividad laboral en la industria manufacturera mexicana. (Wage, Unemployment and Labor Productivity in the Mexican Manufacturing Industry)," Ensayos Revista de Economia, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Facultad de Economia, vol. 0(2), pages 185-228, October.
    3. Gabriel Bruneau & Kevin Moran, 2017. "Exchange rate fluctuations and labour market adjustments in Canadian manufacturing industries," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 50(1), pages 72-93, February.
    4. Belke, Ansgar & Volz, Ulrich, 2018. "Capital flows to emerging market and developing economies: global liquidity and uncertainty versus country-specific pull factors," IDOS Discussion Papers 23/2018, German Institute of Development and Sustainability (IDOS).
    5. André Madeira & Victor Moutinho & José Alberto Fuinhas, 2021. "Does waiting times decrease or increase operational costs in short and long-term? Evidence from Portuguese public hospitals," The European Journal of Health Economics, Springer;Deutsche Gesellschaft für Gesundheitsökonomie (DGGÖ), vol. 22(8), pages 1195-1216, November.
    6. Sérgio Kannebley Júnior & João Paulo Martins Baroni & Diogo de Prince, 2015. "Macro-Hysteresis Test for Brazilian Exports of Manufactured Products: A threshold Panel Approach," Metroeconomica, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 66(4), pages 606-637, November.
    7. Campbell, Douglas L. & Lusher, Lester, 2019. "The impact of real exchange rate shocks on manufacturing workers: An autopsy from the MORG," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 91(C), pages 12-28.
    8. Ronald MacDonald & Flávio Vieira, "undated". "A panel data investigation of real exchange rate misalignment and growth," Working Papers 2010_13, Business School - Economics, University of Glasgow.
    9. Campbell, Douglas L., 2013. "Relative Prices, Hysteresis, and the Decline of American Manufacturing," MPRA Paper 51723, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    10. Jun, Sangjoon, 2015. "The Nexus between FDI and Growth in the SAARC Member Countries," East Asian Economic Review, Korea Institute for International Economic Policy, vol. 19(1), pages 39-70, March.
    11. Krishna Murari, 2017. "Financial Development–Economic Growth Nexus: Evidence from South Asian Middle-income Countries," Global Business Review, International Management Institute, vol. 18(4), pages 924-935, August.
    12. Alfaro, Laura & Cunat, Alejandro & Liu, Yanping & Fadinger, Harald, 2018. "The real exchange rate, innovation and productivity : regional heterogeneity, asymmetries and hysteresis," Working Papers 18-05, University of Mannheim, Department of Economics.
    13. Dario Fauceglia & Anirudh Shingal & Martin Wermelinger, 2014. "Natural Hedging of Exchange Rate Risk: The Role of Imported Input Prices," Swiss Journal of Economics and Statistics (SJES), Swiss Society of Economics and Statistics (SSES), vol. 150(IV), pages 261-296, December.
    14. David Greasley & Les Oxley, 2010. "Cliometrics And Time Series Econometrics: Some Theory And Applications," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 24(5), pages 970-1042, December.
    15. Mourad Zmami & Ousama Ben-Salha, 2015. "Exchange rate movements and manufacturing employment in Tunisia: Do different categories of firms react similarly?," Economic Change and Restructuring, Springer, vol. 48(2), pages 137-167, May.
    16. Daniel Tomić Jurica Šimurina Luka Jovanov, 2020. "The Nexus between Economic Sentiment Indicator and Gross Domestic Product; a Panel Cointegration Analysis," Zagreb International Review of Economics and Business, Faculty of Economics and Business, University of Zagreb, vol. 23(1), pages 121-140, May.
    17. Chien-Chiang Lee & Mei-Se Chien, 2011. "Empirical Modelling of Regional House Prices and the Ripple Effect," Urban Studies, Urban Studies Journal Limited, vol. 48(10), pages 2029-2047, August.
    18. Khalid M. Kisswani, 2016. "Does oil price variability affect ASEAN exchange rates? Evidence from panel cointegration test," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 48(20), pages 1831-1839, April.
    19. Dai, Mi & Xu, Jianwei, 2017. "Firm-specific exchange rate shocks and employment adjustment: Evidence from China," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 108(C), pages 54-66.
    20. Kahia, Montassar & Ben Aïssa, Mohamed Safouane & Charfeddine, Lanouar, 2016. "Impact of renewable and non-renewable energy consumption on economic growth: New evidence from the MENA Net Oil Exporting Countries (NOECs)," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 116(P1), pages 102-115.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Yen appreciation; exchange rates; Japanese manufacturing; hollowing out; hysteresis;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • F31 - International Economics - - International Finance - - - Foreign Exchange
    • O14 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Industrialization; Manufacturing and Service Industries; Choice of Technology

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:zbw:glodps:380. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/glabode.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: ZBW - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/glabode.html .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.