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Teacher Unions, Teacher Pay and Student Performance in India: A Pupil Fixed Effects Approach

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  • Geeta Kingdon
  • Francis Teal

Abstract

This paper examines the relationship between teacher unionization, student achievement and teachers’ pay using a cross-section of data from private schools in India. We use differences in student mark across subjects to identify within-pupil variation in achievement and find that union membership of the teacher appears to strongly reduce pupil achievement. We find no evidence this could be due to the unobservables not controlled for by this procedure. A school fixed effects equation of teacher pay shows that union membership substantially raises pay and in this case too we find that remaining unobservables are unlikely to explain this outcome. We thus have in this data clear evidence that unions raise cost and reduce student achievement.

Suggested Citation

  • Geeta Kingdon & Francis Teal, 2008. "Teacher Unions, Teacher Pay and Student Performance in India: A Pupil Fixed Effects Approach," CESifo Working Paper Series 2428, CESifo Group Munich.
  • Handle: RePEc:ces:ceswps:_2428
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Cavalcanti, Tiago & Guimaraes, Juliana & Sampaio, Breno, 2010. "Barriers to skill acquisition in Brazil: Public and private school students performance in a public university entrance exam," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 50(4), pages 395-407, November.
    2. Azam, Mehtabul & Kingdon, Geeta Gandhi, 2015. "Assessing teacher quality in India," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 117(C), pages 74-83.
    3. Aslam, Monazza & Kingdon, Geeta, 2011. "What can teachers do to raise pupil achievement?," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 30(3), pages 559-574, June.
    4. Prashant Loyalka & Andrey Zakharov, 2014. "Does shadow education help students prepare for college?," HSE Working papers WP BRP 15/EDU/2014, National Research University Higher School of Economics.
    5. Nadir Altinok & Geeta Kingdon, 2012. "New Evidence on Class Size Effects: A Pupil Fixed Effects Approach," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 74(2), pages 203-234, April.
    6. Ozkan Eren & Serkan Ozbeklik, 2015. "Leadership Activities and Future Earnings: Is There a Causal Relation?," Journal of Human Capital, University of Chicago Press, vol. 9(1), pages 45-63.
    7. Patrinos, Harry A. & Sakellariou, Chris, 2011. "Quality of Schooling, Returns to Schooling and the 1981 Vouchers Reform in Chile," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 39(12), pages 2245-2256.
    8. Rajesh Raj, S.N. & Sen, Kunal & Annigeri, Vinod B. & Kulkarni, Arun K. & Revankar, D.R., 2015. "Joyful learning? The effects of a school intervention on learning outcomes in Karnataka," International Journal of Educational Development, Elsevier, vol. 40(C), pages 183-195.
    9. Asim,Salman & Chase,Robert S. & Dar,Amit & Schmillen,Achim Daniel, 2015. "Improving education outcomes in South Asia : findings from a decade of impact evaluations," Policy Research Working Paper Series 7362, The World Bank.
    10. Makino, Momoe, 2015. "Marriage, dowry, and women's status in rural Punjab, Pakistan," IDE Discussion Papers 534, Institute of Developing Economies, Japan External Trade Organization(JETRO).
    11. Loyalka, Prashant & Zakharov, Andrey, 2016. "Does shadow education help students prepare for college? Evidence from Russia," International Journal of Educational Development, Elsevier, vol. 49(C), pages 22-30.
    12. Pal, Sarmistha & Kingdon, Geeta G., 2010. "Can Private School Growth Foster Universal Literacy? Panel Evidence from Indian Districts," IZA Discussion Papers 5274, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    13. Nick Manning & Zahid Hasnain & Jan Henryk Pierskalla, 2012. "Public Sector Human Resource Practices to Drive Performance," World Bank Other Operational Studies 25489, The World Bank.
    14. Chu, Jessica Hsiaochieh & Loyalka, Prashant & Chu, James & Qu, Qinghe & Shi, Yaojiang & Li, Guirong, 2015. "The impact of teacher credentials on student achievement in China," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 36(C), pages 14-24.
    15. Singh, Abhijeet, 2015. "Private school effects in urban and rural India: Panel estimates at primary and secondary school ages," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 113(C), pages 16-32.
    16. Manabu Nose, 2017. "Estimation of drivers of public education expenditure: Baumol’s effect revisited," International Tax and Public Finance, Springer;International Institute of Public Finance, vol. 24(3), pages 512-535, June.
    17. Gavin Jones & Divya Ramchand, 2013. "Education and human capital development in the giants of Asia," Asian-Pacific Economic Literature, Asia Pacific School of Economics and Government, The Australian National University, vol. 27(1), pages 40-61, May.
    18. Pugatch, Todd & Schroeder, Elizabeth, 2014. "Teacher Pay and Student Performance: Evidence from the Gambian Hardship Allowance," IZA Discussion Papers 8621, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    19. Clair Null & Clemencia Cosentino & Swetha Sridharan & Laura Meyer, "undated". "Policies and Programs to Improve Secondary Education in Developing Countries: A Review of the Evidence," Mathematica Policy Research Reports 516e420e637c4851b15e6a3f6, Mathematica Policy Research.
    20. Makino, Momoe, 2015. "Better than nothing? : dowry in the absence of the legal protection of women's inheritance rights," IDE Discussion Papers 537, Institute of Developing Economies, Japan External Trade Organization(JETRO).
    21. Pauline Dixon, 2013. "International Aid and Private Schools for the Poor," Books, Edward Elgar Publishing, number 15122.
    22. De Ree,Joppe Jaitze, 2016. "How much teachers know and how much it matters in class : analyzing three rounds of subject-specific test score data of Indonesian students and teachers," Policy Research Working Paper Series 7556, The World Bank.
    23. Shenila Rawal & Monazza Aslam & Baela Jamil, 2013. "Teacher Characteristics, Actions and Perceptions: What Matters for Student Achievement in Pakistan?," Economics Series Working Papers WPS/2013-19, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    teacher unions; teacher salaries; student achievement; productivity; India;

    JEL classification:

    • I21 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Analysis of Education

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