What can Teachers do to Raise Pupil Achievement?
Improving weak teaching may be one of the most effective means of raising pupil achievement. However, teachers. classroom practices and the teaching .process. may matter more to student learning than teachers. observed résumé characteristics (such as certification and experience). There may also be important differences in teacher characteristics across government and private schools which may help explain the large documented public-private achievement differences often found in studies. This paper delves into the black-box representing .teaching. to uncover the teacher characteristics and teaching practices that matter most to pupil achievement. This is done using unique, school-based data, collected in 2002-2003 from government and private schools from one district in Punjab province in Pakistan. The data allow exploitation of an identification strategy that permits the matching of students. test scores in language and mathematics to the characteristics of teachers that teach those subjects. Within pupil (across subject rather than across time) variation is used to examine whether the characteristics of different subject teachers are related to a students. mark across subjects. The data is also unique in asking all subject teachers questions pertaining to their teaching practices and these, often unobserved, process variables are included in achievement function estimates. Our pupil fixed-effects findings reveal that the standard résumé characteristics of teachers do not significantly matter to pupil achievement. Perversely, however, teachers are found to be rewarded for possessing these characteristics highlighting the highly inefficient nature of teacher pay schedules. Our findings also show that teaching process variables matter significantly to student achievement. There are important differences across school-types.
|Date of creation:||2007|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: Manor Road, Oxford, OX1 3UQ|
Phone: +44-(0)1865 271084
Fax: +44-(0)1865 281447
Web page: http://www.csae.ox.ac.uk/
More information through EDIRC
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Holmlund, Helena & Sund, Krister, 2005.
"Is the Gender Gap in School Performance Affected by the Sex of the Teacher?,"
Working Paper Series
5/2005, Swedish Institute for Social Research.
- Holmlund, Helena & Sund, Krister, 2008. "Is the gender gap in school performance affected by the sex of the teacher," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 15(1), pages 37-53, February.
- G. M. Arif & Najam Us Saqib, 2003. "Production of Cognitive and Life Skills in Public, Private, and NGO Schools in Pakistan," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 42(1), pages 1-28.
- Glewwe, Paul & Kremer, Michael, 2006. "Schools, Teachers, and Education Outcomes in Developing Countries," Handbook of the Economics of Education, Elsevier.
- Maresa, SPRIETSMA & Fabio, WALTENBERG, 2005. "The impact of teachers’ wages on students’ performance in the presence of heterogeneity and endogeneity. Evidence from Brazil," Discussion Papers (ECON - Département des Sciences Economiques) 2005008, Université catholique de Louvain, Département des Sciences Economiques.
- Eric A. Hanushek & John F. Kain & Daniel M. O'Brien & Steven G. Rivkin, 2005.
"The Market for Teacher Quality,"
NBER Working Papers
11154, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Thomas S. Dee, 2005.
"Teachers and the Gender Gaps in Student Achievement,"
NBER Working Papers
11660, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Thomas S. Dee, 2007. "Teachers and the Gender Gaps in Student Achievement," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 42(3).
- Joseph G. Altonji & Todd E. Elder & Christopher R. Taber, 2005.
"Selection on Observed and Unobserved Variables: Assessing the Effectiveness of Catholic Schools,"
Journal of Political Economy,
University of Chicago Press, vol. 113(1), pages 151-184, February.
- Joseph G. Altonji & Todd E. Elder & Christopher R. Taber, 2000. "Selection on Observed and Unobserved Variables: Assessing the Effectiveness of Catholic Schools," NBER Working Papers 7831, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Shahrukh Rafi Khan, 2002. "Rationality in Public Sector Salary Scales: The Case of Rural Teachers in Pakistan," Education Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 10(3), pages 333-345.
- Eric A. Hanushek & John F. Kain & Steven G. Rivkin, 1998.
"Teachers, Schools, and Academic Achievement,"
NBER Working Papers
6691, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Jonah E. Rockoff, 2004. "The Impact of Individual Teachers on Student Achievement: Evidence from Panel Data," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 94(2), pages 247-252, May.
- Boissiere, M & Knight, J B & Sabot, R H, 1985. "Earnings, Schooling, Ability, and Cognitive Skills," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 75(5), pages 1016-1030, December.
- Ballou, Dale, 2001. "Pay for performance in public and private schools," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 20(1), pages 51-61, February.
- Kingdon, Geeta Gandhi & Teal, Francis, 2007.
"Does performance related pay for teachers improve student performance? Some evidence from India,"
Economics of Education Review,
Elsevier, vol. 26(4), pages 473-486, August.
- Geeta Kingdon & Francis Teal, 2004. "Does performance related pay for teachers improve student performance? Some evidence from India," Development and Comp Systems 0409009, EconWPA.
- Geeta G. Kingdon & Francis Teal, 2002. "Does performance related pay for teachers improve student performance? Some evidence from India," CSAE Working Paper Series 2002-06, Centre for the Study of African Economies, University of Oxford.
- Kane, Thomas J. & Rockoff, Jonah E. & Staiger, Douglas O., 2008.
"What does certification tell us about teacher effectiveness? Evidence from New York City,"
Economics of Education Review,
Elsevier, vol. 27(6), pages 615-631, December.
- Thomas J. Kane & Jonah E. Rockoff & Douglas O. Staiger, 2006. "What Does Certification Tell Us About Teacher Effectiveness? Evidence from New York City," NBER Working Papers 12155, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Kingdon, Geeta & Teal, Francis, 2010.
"Teacher unions, teacher pay and student performance in India: A pupil fixed effects approach,"
Journal of Development Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 91(2), pages 278-288, March.
- Geeta Kingdon & Francis Teal, 2008. "Teacher Unions, Teacher Pay and Student Performance in India: A Pupil Fixed Effects Approach," CESifo Working Paper Series 2428, CESifo Group Munich.
- Monazza Aslam, 2009. "Education Gender Gaps in Pakistan: Is the Labor Market to Blame?," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 57(4), pages 747-784, 07.
- Alderman, Harold & Orazem, Peter & Paterno, Elizabeth M., 2001.
"School Quality, School Cost, and the Public/Private School Choices of Low-Income Households in Pakistan,"
Staff General Research Papers Archive
1970, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
- Harold Alderman & Peter F. Orazem & Elizabeth M. Paterno, 2001. "School Quality, School Cost, and the Public/Private School Choices of Low-Income Households in Pakistan," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 36(2), pages 304-326.
- Monazza Aslam, 2009. "The relative effectiveness of government and private schools in Pakistan: are girls worse off?," Education Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 17(3), pages 329-354.
- Caroline Minter Hoxby, 1996. "How Teachers' Unions Affect Education Production," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 111(3), pages 671-718.
- Hanushek, Eric A. & Rivkin, Steven G., 2006. "Teacher Quality," Handbook of the Economics of Education, Elsevier.
- Das, Jishnu & Pandey, Priyanka & Zajonc, Tristan, 2006. "Learning levels and gaps in Pakistan," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4067, The World Bank.
- repec:oxf:wpaper:gprg-wps-059 is not listed on IDEAS
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:csa:wpaper:2007-14. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Richard Payne)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.