Learning levels and gaps in Pakistan
The authors report on a survey of primary public and private schools in rural Pakistan witha focus on student achievement as measured through test scores. Absolute learning is low compared with curricular standards and international norms. Tested at the end of the third grade, a bare majority had mastered the K-I mathematics curriculum and 31 percent could correctly form a sentence with the word"school"in the vernacular (Urdu). As in high-income countries, bivariate comparisons show that higher learning is associated with household wealth and parental literacy. In sharp contrast to high-income countries, these gaps decrease dramatically in a multivariate regression once differences between children in the same school are looked at. Consequently, the largest gaps are between schools. The gap in English test scores between government and private schools, for instance, is 12 times the gap between children from rich and poor families. To contextualize these results within a broader South Asian context, the authors use data from public schools in the state of Uttar Pradesh in India. Levels of learning and the structure of the educational gaps are similar in the two samples. As in Pakistan, absolute learning is low and the largest gaps are between schools: the gap between good and bad government schools, for instance, is 5 times the gap between children with literate and illiterate mothers.
|Date of creation:||01 Nov 2006|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: 1818 H Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20433|
Phone: (202) 477-1234
Web page: http://www.worldbank.org/
More information through EDIRC
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Duflo, Esther & Hanna, Rema & Ryan, Stephen, 2008.
"Monitoring Works: Getting Teachers to Come to School,"
CEPR Discussion Papers
6682, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Esther Duflo & Rema Hanna, 2006. "Monitoring works: Getting teachers to come to school," Framed Field Experiments 00142, The Field Experiments Website.
- Esther Duflo & Rema Hanna, 2005. "Monitoring Works: Getting Teachers to Come to School," Working Papers id:301, eSocialSciences.
- Esther Duflo & Rema Hanna, 2005. "Monitoring Works: Getting Teachers to Come to School," NBER Working Papers 11880, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Duflo, Esther & Hanna, Rema, 2005. "Monitoring Works: Getting Teachers to Come to School," CEPR Discussion Papers 5426, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Jishnu Das & Stefan Dercon & James Habyarimana & Pramila Krishnan, 2007.
"Teacher Shocks and Student Learning: Evidence from Zambia,"
Journal of Human Resources,
University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 42(4).
- Jishnu Das & Stefan Dercon & James Habyarimana & Pramila Krishnan, 2004. "Teacher Shocks and Student Learning: Evidence from Zambia," CSAE Working Paper Series 2004-26, Centre for the Study of African Economies, University of Oxford.
- Das, J. & Dercon, S. & Habyarimana, J. & Krishnan, P., 2004. "Teacher Shocks and Student Learning: Evidence from Zambia," Cambridge Working Papers in Economics 0514, Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge.
- Das, Jishnu & Dercon, Stefan & Habyarimana, James & Krishnan, Pramila, 2005. "Teacher shocks and student learning : evidence from Zambia," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3602, The World Bank.
- Abhijit Banerjee & Lakshmi Iyer, 2005.
"History, Institutions, and Economic Performance: The Legacy of Colonial Land Tenure Systems in India,"
American Economic Review,
American Economic Association, vol. 95(4), pages 1190-1213, September.
- Abhijit Banerjee & Lakshmi Iyer, 2010. "History Institutions and Economic Performance: The Legacy of Colonial Land Tenure Systems in India," Working Papers id:2811, eSocialSciences.
- Jean Drèze & Geeta Gandhi Kingdon, 2001. "School Participation in Rural India," Review of Development Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 5(1), pages 1-24, 02.
- Abhijit Banerjee & Rohini Somanathan, 2004.
"The political economy of public goods: Some evidence from India,"
Indian Statistical Institute, Planning Unit, New Delhi Discussion Papers
04-17, Indian Statistical Institute, New Delhi, India.
- Banerjee, Abhijit & Somanathan, Rohini, 2007. "The political economy of public goods: Some evidence from India," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 82(2), pages 287-314, March.
- Michael Kremer & Nazmul Chaudhury & F. Halsey Rogers & Karthik Muralidharan & Jeffrey Hammer, 2005. "Teacher Absence in India: A Snapshot," Journal of the European Economic Association, MIT Press, vol. 3(2-3), pages 658-667, 04/05.
- Eric A. Hanushek, 2001. "Black-White Achievement Differences and Governmental Interventions," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 91(2), pages 24-28, May.
- Zafar Mueen Nasir & Hina Nazli, 2000. "Education And Earnings In Pakistan," PIDE-Working Papers 2000:177, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:4067. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Roula I. Yazigi)
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.