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Multiculturalism and Growth: Skill-Specific Evidence from the Post-World War II Period

Author

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  • Frédéric DOCQUIER
  • Riccardo TURATI
  • Jérome VALETTE
  • Chrysovalantis VASILAKIS

Abstract

This paper empirically revisits the impact of multiculturalism (as proxied by indices of birthplace diversity and polarization among immigrants, or by epidemiological terms) on the macroeconomic performance of US states over the 1960-2010 period. We test for skill-specific effects of multiculturalism, controlling for standard growth regressors and a variety of fixed effects, and accounting for the age of entry and legal status of immigrants. To identify causation, we compare various instrumentation strategies used in the existing literature. We provide converging and robust evidence of a positive and significant effect of diversity among college-educated immigrants on GDP per capita. Overall, a 10% increase in high-skilled diversity raises GDP per capita by 6.2%. On the contrary, diversity among less educated immigrants has insignificant effects. Also, we find no evidence of a quadratic effect or a contamination by economic conditions in poor countries.

Suggested Citation

  • Frédéric DOCQUIER & Riccardo TURATI & Jérome VALETTE & Chrysovalantis VASILAKIS, 2016. "Multiculturalism and Growth: Skill-Specific Evidence from the Post-World War II Period," Working Papers 201624, CERDI.
  • Handle: RePEc:cdi:wpaper:1838
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    5. Scott L. Fulford & Ivan Petkov & Fabio Schiantarelli, 2020. "Does it matter where you came from? Ancestry composition and economic performance of US counties, 1850–2010," Journal of Economic Growth, Springer, vol. 25(3), pages 341-380, September.
    6. Anthony Edo & Lionel Ragot & Hillel Rapoport & Sulin Sardoschau & Andreas Steinmayr & Arthur Sweetman, 2020. "An introduction to the economics of immigration in OECD countries," Canadian Journal of Economics/Revue canadienne d'économique, John Wiley & Sons, vol. 53(4), pages 1365-1403, November.
    7. Frédéric Docquier & Aysit Tansel & Riccardo Turati, 2017. "Do Emigrants Self-Select Along Cultural Traits? Evidence from the MENA Countries," CESifo Working Paper Series 6777, CESifo.
    8. Brunello, Giorgio & Lodigiani, Elisabetta & Rocco, Lorenzo, 2020. "Does low-skilled immigration increase profits? Evidence from Italian local labour markets," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 85(C).
    9. Ceren Ozgen, 2021. "The economics of diversity: Innovation, productivity and the labour market," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 35(4), pages 1168-1216, September.
    10. Ying Zhou & Sajid Anwar, 2022. "Immigrant Diversity, Institutional Quality, and GVC Position," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 14(4), pages 1-19, February.
    11. Francesco Campo & Mariapia Mendola & Andrea Morrison & Gianmarco Ottaviano, "undated". "Immigrant Inventors and Diversity in the Age of Mass Migration," Development Working Papers 464, Centro Studi Luca d'Agliano, University of Milano.
    12. Docquier, Frédéric & Tansel, Aysit & Turati, Riccardo, 2017. "Do emigrants self-select along cultural traits? Evidence from the MENA countries," MPRA Paper 82778, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    13. Riccardo Turati, 2021. "Do you want to migrate to the United States? Migration intentions and Cultural Traits in Latin America," Working Papers wpdea2101, Department of Applied Economics at Universitat Autonoma of Barcelona.
    14. Michel Beine & Silvia Peracchi & Skerdilajda Zanaj, 2021. "Genetic Diversity and Performance: Evidence from Fooball Data," CESifo Working Paper Series 9188, CESifo.
    15. Adam Levai & Riccardo Turati, 2021. "The Impact of Immigration on Workers’ Protection," LIDAM Discussion Papers IRES 2021021, Université catholique de Louvain, Institut de Recherches Economiques et Sociales (IRES), revised 07 Sep 2021.
    16. Ana Cuadros & Jordi Paniagua & Antonio Navas, 2019. "Moving ideas across borders: Foreign inventors, patents and FDI," Working Papers 1904, Department of Applied Economics II, Universidad de Valencia.
    17. Marcinko, Andrew J. & Taylor, Chelsey, 2021. "Employee reactions to positive action policies in the United Kingdom: Does the organization’s justification matter?," Journal of Economic Psychology, Elsevier, vol. 87(C).
    18. Ozgen, Ceren, 2021. "The Economics of Diversity: Innovation, Productivity, and the Labour Market," IZA Discussion Papers 14344, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    19. Frédéric Docquier & Aysit Tansel & Riccardo Turati, 2017. "Do Emigrants Self-Select Along Cultural Traits? Evidence from the MENA Countries," CESifo Working Paper Series 6777, CESifo.
    20. Francesco Campo & Mariapia Mendola & Andrea Morrison & Gianmarco Ottaviano, "undated". "Immigrant Inventors and Diversity in the Age of Mass Migration," Development Working Papers 464, Centro Studi Luca d'Agliano, University of Milano.
    21. Mariani, Fabio & Mercier, Marion & Pensieroso, Luca, 2021. "Left-Handedness and Economic Development," IZA Discussion Papers 14237, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    22. Silje Haus-Reve & Abigail Cooke, 2019. "Do regional social capital and trust matter for immigrant diversity and wages?," Papers in Evolutionary Economic Geography (PEEG) 1932, Utrecht University, Department of Human Geography and Spatial Planning, Group Economic Geography, revised Nov 2019.
    23. Brox, Enzo & Krieger, Tommy, 2019. "Birthplace diversity and team performance," ZEW Discussion Papers 19-020, ZEW - Leibniz Centre for European Economic Research.
    24. Sari Pekkala Kerr & William R. Kerr, 2021. "Whose Job Is It Anyway? Co-Ethnic Hiring in New U.S. Ventures," NBER Working Papers 28509, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.

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    Keywords

    Birthplace diversity; Growth.;

    JEL classification:

    • J61 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Mobility, Unemployment, Vacancies, and Immigrant Workers - - - Geographic Labor Mobility; Immigrant Workers
    • F22 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business - - - International Migration

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