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Migration-Induced Transfers of Norms. The Case of Femal Political Empowerment

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  • Elisabetta Lodigiani

    (University of Milan and Centro Studi Luca d’Agliano)

  • Sara Salomone

    (Catholic University of Leuven)

Abstract

It is recognized that affirmative action, as anti-discriminatory policies whose aim is to benefit an underrepresented group, is a key driver of progress for women. However, the role of migrants in helping female voice from abroad has not been addressed yet. This paper empirically investigates the effect of international migration on the parliamentary participation of women left behind following the brand new strand of literature on ‘transfers of norms’. Panel data from 1960 to 2000 allows us to take into account selection due to women’s eligibility, observed and unobserved heterogeneity. After having controlled for traditional political and non political factors, we show that total international migration to countries with higher female political empowerment significantly increases the female parliamentary shares in sending countries.

Suggested Citation

  • Elisabetta Lodigiani & Sara Salomone, 2012. "Migration-Induced Transfers of Norms. The Case of Femal Political Empowerment," Development Working Papers 343, Centro Studi Luca d'Agliano, University of Milano, revised 13 Nov 2012.
  • Handle: RePEc:csl:devewp:343
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    Cited by:

    1. Frédéric Docquier & Riccardo Turati & Jérôme Valette & Chrysovalantis Vasilakis, 2016. "Multiculturalism and Growth: Skill-Specific Evidence from the Post-World War II Period," LIDAM Discussion Papers IRES 2016028, Université catholique de Louvain, Institut de Recherches Economiques et Sociales (IRES).
    2. Mercier, Marion, 2016. "The return of the prodigy son: Do return migrants make better leaders?," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 122(C), pages 76-91.
    3. Frédéric Docquier & Riccardo Turati & Jérôme Valette & Chrysovalantis Vasilakis, 2020. "Birthplace diversity and economic growth: evidence from the US states in the Post-World War II period [Cultural diversity and economic growth: evidence from the US during the age of mass migration]," Journal of Economic Geography, Oxford University Press, vol. 20(2), pages 321-354.
    4. Nejad, Maryam Naghsh & Young, Andrew T., 2016. "Want freedom, will travel: Emigrant self-selection according to institutional quality," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 45(S), pages 71-84.
    5. Jérôme Valette, 2018. "Do Migrants Transfer Productive Knowledge Back to Their Origin Countries?," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 54(9), pages 1637-1656, September.
    6. Leonid V. Azarnert & Slava Yakubenko, 2021. "Effects of Emigration on Gender Norms in Countries of Origin," CESifo Working Paper Series 9450, CESifo.
    7. Böhme, Marcus H. & Glaser, Toni, 2014. "Migration experience, aspirations and the brain drain theory and empirical evidence," Kiel Working Papers 1956, Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW Kiel).
    8. Chauvet, Lisa & Mercier, Marion, 2014. "Do return migrants transfer political norms to their origin country? Evidence from Mali," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 42(3), pages 630-651.
    9. Bertoli, Simone & Marchetta, Francesca, 2015. "Bringing It All Back Home – Return Migration and Fertility Choices," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 65(C), pages 27-40.
    10. Ferrant, Gaëlle & Tuccio, Michele, 2015. "South–South Migration and Discrimination Against Women in Social Institutions: A Two-way Relationship," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 72(C), pages 240-254.
    11. Chort, Isabelle, 2014. "Mexican Migrants to the US: What Do Unrealized Migration Intentions Tell Us About Gender Inequalities?," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 59(C), pages 535-552.
    12. Jean Louis Combes & Christian Ebeke & Mathilde Maurel, 2015. "The effect of remittances prior to an election," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 47(38), pages 4074-4089, August.
    13. Simone Bertoli, 2015. "Does return migration influence fertility at home?," IZA World of Labor, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA), pages 204-204, November.
    14. Tuccio, Michele & Wahba, Jackline, 2018. "Return migration and the transfer of gender norms: Evidence from the Middle East," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 46(4), pages 1006-1029.
    15. Şule Akkoyunlu, 2013. "Migration-Induced Women’s Empowerment: The Case of Turkey," RSCAS Working Papers 2013/77, European University Institute.
    16. Ivlevs, Artjoms & King, Roswitha M., 2014. "Emigration, Remittances and Corruption Experience of Those Staying Behind," IZA Discussion Papers 8521, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    17. Bogatzki, Tamara, 2021. "Heterogeneity in migration network effects across cultures," Discussion Papers, Research Unit: Migration, Integration, Transnationalization SP VI 2021-102, WZB Berlin Social Science Center.
    18. Imran Arif & Adam Hoffer & Dean Stansel & Donald Lacombe, 2020. "Economic freedom and migration: A metro area‐level analysis," Southern Economic Journal, John Wiley & Sons, vol. 87(1), pages 170-190, July.
    19. Ademmer, Esther & Akgüç, Mehtap & Barslund, Mikkel & Di Bartolomeo, Anna & Benček, David & Groll, Dominik & Hoxhaj, Rezart & Lanati, Mauro & Laurentsyeva, Nadzeya & Lücke, Matthias & Ludolph, Lars & R, 2017. "2017 MEDAM Assessment Report on Asylum and Migration Policies in Europe. Sharing responsibility for refugees and expanding legal immigration," MEDAM Assessment Report on Asylum and Migration Policies in Europe, Mercator Dialogue on Asylum and Migration (MEDAM), number 182239.
    20. Sven Jung, 2014. "Employment adjustment in German firms [Betriebliche Beschäftigungsanpassung in Deutschland]," Journal for Labour Market Research, Springer;Institute for Employment Research/ Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), vol. 47(1), pages 83-106, March.
    21. repec:dau:papers:123456789/12585 is not listed on IDEAS
    22. Idrissa Diabate & Sandrine Mesplé-Somps, 2014. "Female genital mutilation and migration in Mali. Do migrants transfer social norms?," Working Papers DT/2014/16, DIAL (Développement, Institutions et Mondialisation).

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    International Migration; Gender Discrimination; Panel Data; Sample Selection;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination
    • D72 - Microeconomics - - Analysis of Collective Decision-Making - - - Political Processes: Rent-seeking, Lobbying, Elections, Legislatures, and Voting Behavior
    • F22 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business - - - International Migration
    • C33 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables - - - Models with Panel Data; Spatio-temporal Models

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