On the asymptotic t-test for large nonstationary panel models
The asymptotic t-test for the long-run average in a heterogeneous nonstationary panel model is derived. The asymptotics of the Least Squares Dummy Variable (LSDV) and of the Pooled-OLS (POLS) estimators for the slope parameter are studied under various circumstances (serial correlation, strong cross-sectional dependence in the errors and in the regressors and mixed stationary/nonstationary errors) and a modified estimator of the asymptotic variance is derived. The asymptotic variance is computed up to a simple transformation of the residual and no nuisance parameters need to be estimated. The resulting t-statistics are shown to have a standard normal limiting distribution. Asymptotic tests based on the standardized version of the t-statistic are shown to have good power properties, and the correct size, even for n as small as 25.
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