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Optimal forecasting with heterogeneous panels: a Monte Carlo study

  • Lorenzo Trapani
  • Giovanni Urga

This paper reports the results of a series of Monte Carlo exercises to contrast the forecasting performance of several panel data esti- mators, divided into three main groups (homogeneous, heterogeneous and shrinkage/Bayesian). The comparison is done using di¤erent lev- els of heterogeneity, alternative panel structures in terms of T and N and using various error dynamics speci.cations. We also consider the presence of various degrees of cross sectional dependence among units. To assess the predictive performance, we use traditional measures of forecast accuracy (Theil.s U statistics, RMSE and MAE), the Diebold and Mariano.s (1995) test, and the Pesaran and Timmerman.s (1992) statistics on the capability of forecasting turning points. The main .nding of our analysis is that in presence of heterogeneous panels the Bayesian procedures have systematically the best predictive power in- dependently of the model.s features.

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Paper provided by Department of Economics and Technology Management, University of Bergamo in its series Working Papers with number 0616.

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Date of creation: 2006
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Handle: RePEc:brh:wpaper:0616
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  1. Pesaran, M.H. & Timmermann, A., 1990. "A Simple, Non-Parametric Test Of Predictive Performance," Cambridge Working Papers in Economics 9021, Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge.
  2. Pesaran, M.H. & Smith, R., 1992. "Estimating Long-Run Relationships From Dynamic Heterogeneous Panels," Cambridge Working Papers in Economics 9215, Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge.
  3. Francis X. Diebold & Robert S. Mariano, 1994. "Comparing Predictive Accuracy," NBER Technical Working Papers 0169, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  4. Swamy, P A V B, 1970. "Efficient Inference in a Random Coefficient Regression Model," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 38(2), pages 311-23, March.
  5. Breusch, Trevor S., 1987. "Maximum likelihood estimation of random effects models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 36(3), pages 383-389, November.
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  7. Nickell, Stephen J, 1981. "Biases in Dynamic Models with Fixed Effects," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 49(6), pages 1417-26, November.
  8. Sevestre, P. & Trognon, A., 1985. "A note on autoregressive error components models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 28(2), pages 231-245, May.
  9. Badi H. Baltagi & Georges Bresson & James M. Griffin & Alain Pirotte, 2002. "Homogeneous, heterogeneous or shrinkage estimators? Some empirical evidence from French regional gasoline consumption," 10th International Conference on Panel Data, Berlin, July 5-6, 2002 A6-4, International Conferences on Panel Data.
  10. Leitch, Gordon & Tanner, J Ernest, 1991. "Economic Forecast Evaluation: Profits versus the Conventional Error Measures," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 81(3), pages 580-90, June.
  11. Badi H. Baltagi & Georges Bresson & Alain Pirotte, 2004. "Tobin q: Forecast performance for hierarchical Bayes, shrinkage, heterogeneous and homogeneous panel data estimators," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 29(1), pages 107-113, January.
  12. repec:cup:cbooks:9780521818551 is not listed on IDEAS
  13. Herbert Brücker & Boriss Siliverstovs, 2006. "On the estimation and forecasting of international migration: how relevant is heterogeneity across countries?," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 31(3), pages 735-754, September.
  14. Ciaran Driver & Giovanni Urga, 2004. "Transforming Qualitative Survey Data: Performance Comparisons for the UK," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 66(1), pages 71-89, 02.
  15. Baltagi, Badi H. & Li, Qi, 1992. "A Note on the Estimation of Simultaneous Equations with Error Components," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 8(01), pages 113-119, March.
  16. Anderson, T. W. & Hsiao, Cheng, 1982. "Formulation and estimation of dynamic models using panel data," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 18(1), pages 47-82, January.
  17. Francis X. Diebold & Jose A. Lopez, 1996. "Forecast Evaluation and Combination," NBER Technical Working Papers 0192, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  18. Arellano, Manuel, 2003. "Panel Data Econometrics," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780199245291, March.
  19. Balestra, Pietro & Varadharajan-Krishnakumar, Jayalakshmi, 1987. "Full Information Estimations of a System of Simultaneous Equations with Error Component Structure," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 3(02), pages 223-246, April.
  20. Keane, Michael P & Runkle, David E, 1992. "On the Estimation of Panel-Data Models with Serial Correlation When Instruments Are Not Strictly Exogenous: Reply," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 10(1), pages 26-29, January.
  21. Arellano, Manuel & Bond, Stephen, 1991. "Some Tests of Specification for Panel Data: Monte Carlo Evidence and an Application to Employment Equations," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 58(2), pages 277-97, April.
  22. Baltagi, Badi H. & Griffin, James M., 1997. "Pooled estimators vs. their heterogeneous counterparts in the context of dynamic demand for gasoline," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 77(2), pages 303-327, April.
  23. Christoffersen & Diebold, . "Further Results on Forecasting and Model Selection Under Asymmetric Loss," Home Pages _059, University of Pennsylvania.
  24. Arellano, Manuel & Honore, Bo, 2001. "Panel data models: some recent developments," Handbook of Econometrics, in: J.J. Heckman & E.E. Leamer (ed.), Handbook of Econometrics, edition 1, volume 5, chapter 53, pages 3229-3296 Elsevier.
  25. Keane, Michael P & Runkle, David E, 1992. "On the Estimation of Panel-Data Models with Serial Correlation When Instruments Are Not Strictly Exogenous," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 10(1), pages 1-9, January.
  26. Harvey, David & Leybourne, Stephen & Newbold, Paul, 1997. "Testing the equality of prediction mean squared errors," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 13(2), pages 281-291, June.
  27. M. Hashem Pesaran, 2007. "A simple panel unit root test in the presence of cross-section dependence," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 22(2), pages 265-312.
  28. Baltagi, Badi H. & Bresson, Georges & Pirotte, Alain, 2002. "Comparison of forecast performance for homogeneous, heterogeneous and shrinkage estimators: Some empirical evidence from US electricity and natural-gas consumption," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 76(3), pages 375-382, August.
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