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The heterogeneity of carbon Kuznets curves for advanced countries: comparing homogeneous, heterogeneous and shrinkage/Bayesian estimators

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  • Massimiliano Mazzanti
  • Antonio Musolesi

Abstract

We investigate Carbon Kuznets Curves (CKC) relationships for advanced countries grouped in policy relevant groups -- North America and Oceania, South Europe, North Europe -- by means of various homogeneous, heterogeneous and shrinkage/Bayesian panel estimators. We try to provide an answer to the question ‘how sensitive are the CKC estimates to changes in the level of parameters' heterogeneity?’. We do find that in coherence with their ‘policy and economic’ commitment to carbon reductions and environmental market-based instruments implementation, bell shapes are present only for northern EU, which leads the group of advanced countries. The other two lag behind. We show for the first time that CKC shapes are present if we net out Europe of the southern and less developed countries. This is coherent with the Kuznets paradigm. The negative side of the tale is that they characterize a bunch of few countries. Other advanced countries lag behind and are far from reaching a CKC dynamics. Heterogeneous and Bayesian estimators clearly show this, with the EU presenting turning points closely around $13 000 per capita Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Heterogeneous panel estimates also show that for lagging countries presumed bell shapes turn into linear relationships. The stability of outcomes across models is stronger when we compare heterogeneous rather than homogeneous models. If it is compared with other studies, our analysis highlights a relative lower variability across specifications.

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  • Massimiliano Mazzanti & Antonio Musolesi, 2013. "The heterogeneity of carbon Kuznets curves for advanced countries: comparing homogeneous, heterogeneous and shrinkage/Bayesian estimators," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 45(27), pages 3827-3842, September.
  • Handle: RePEc:taf:applec:v:45:y:2013:i:27:p:3827-3842
    DOI: 10.1080/00036846.2012.734597
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    Cited by:

    1. Cem Ertur & Antonio Musolesi, 2017. "Weak and Strong Cross‐Sectional Dependence: A Panel Data Analysis of International Technology Diffusion," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 32(3), pages 477-503, April.
    2. Massimiliano Mazzanti & Antonio Musolesi, 2015. "Unveiling structural breaks in long-run economic development-CO2 relationships," SEEDS Working Papers 1815, SEEDS, Sustainability Environmental Economics and Dynamics Studies, revised Dec 2015.
    3. Musolesi Antonio & Mazzanti Massimiliano, 2014. "Nonlinearity, heterogeneity and unobserved effects in the carbon dioxide emissions-economic development relation for advanced countries," Studies in Nonlinear Dynamics & Econometrics, De Gruyter, vol. 18(5), pages 1-21, December.
    4. Thomas Jobert & Fatih Karanfil & Anna Tykhonenko, 2014. "Estimating country-specific environmental Kuznets curves from panel data: a Bayesian shrinkage approach," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 46(13), pages 1449-1464, May.
    5. Muhammad, Shahbaz & Adebola Solarin, Solarin & Ozturk, Ilhan, 2016. "Environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis and the role of globalization in selected African countries," MPRA Paper 69859, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 04 Mar 2016.
    6. Sam, Aflaki & Syed Abul, Basher & Andrea, Masini, 2016. "Does economic growth matter? Technology-push, demand-pull and endogenous drivers of innovation in the renewable energy industry," MPRA Paper 69773, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    7. Fernández-Amador, Octavio & Francois, Joseph F. & Oberdabernig, Doris A. & Tomberger, Patrick, 2017. "Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Economic Growth: An Assessment Based on Production and Consumption Emission Inventories," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 135(C), pages 269-279.
    8. Ernesto Aguayo-Téllez & José Martínez-Navarro, 2013. "Internal and international migration in Mexico: 1995--2000," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 45(13), pages 1647-1661, May.
    9. Mazzanti, M. & Musolesi, A., 2013. "Economic development and CO2 emissions: assessing the effect of policy and energy time events for advanced countries," Working Papers 2013-11, Grenoble Applied Economics Laboratory (GAEL).
    10. Liddle, Brantley, 2015. "What Are the Carbon Emissions Elasticities for Income and Population? Bridging STIRPAT and EKC via robust heterogeneous panel estimates," MPRA Paper 61304, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    11. Massimiliano Mazzanti & Antonio Musolesi, 2013. "Nonlinearity, Heterogeneity and Unobserved Effects in the CO2-income Relation for Advanced Countries," Working Papers 2013.91, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei.
    12. repec:spr:epolit:v:34:y:2017:i:3:d:10.1007_s40888-017-0069-z is not listed on IDEAS

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    JEL classification:

    • C14 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods and Methodology: General - - - Semiparametric and Nonparametric Methods: General
    • C23 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Models with Panel Data; Spatio-temporal Models
    • Q53 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Air Pollution; Water Pollution; Noise; Hazardous Waste; Solid Waste; Recycling

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