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Nonlinearity, heterogeneity and unobserved effects in the carbon dioxide emissions-economic development relation for advanced countries

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  • Mazzanti, M.
  • Musolesi, A.

Abstract

We study long run carbon emissions-income relationships for advanced countries grouped in policy relevant groups: North America and Oceania, South Europe, North Europe. By relying on recent advances on Generalized Additive Mixed Models (GAMMs) and adopting interaction models, we handle simultaneously three main econometric issues, named here as functional form bias, heterogeneity bias and omitted time related factors bias, which have been proved to be relevant but have been addressed separately in previous papers. The model incorporates nonlinear effects, eventually heterogeneous across countries, for both income and time. We also handle serial correlation by using autoregressive moving average (ARMA) processes. We find that country-specific time related factors weight more than income in driving the northern EU Environmental Kuznets. Overall, the countries differ more on their carbon-time relation than on the carbon-income relation which is in almost all cases monotonic positive. Once serial correlation and (heterogeneous) time effects have been accounted for, only three Scandinavian countries -- Denmark, Finland and Sweden -- present some threshold effect on the CO2-development relation.

Suggested Citation

  • Mazzanti, M. & Musolesi, A., 2013. "Nonlinearity, heterogeneity and unobserved effects in the carbon dioxide emissions-economic development relation for advanced countries," Working Papers 2013-08, Grenoble Applied Economics Laboratory (GAEL).
  • Handle: RePEc:gbl:wpaper:2013-08
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    Cited by:

    1. Marianna Gilli & Giovanni Marin & Massimiliano Mazzanti & Francesco Nicolli, 2017. "Sustainable development and industrial development: manufacturing environmental performance, technology and consumption/production perspectives," Journal of Environmental Economics and Policy, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 6(2), pages 183-203, April.
    2. Abid, Mehdi, 2016. "Impact of economic, financial, and institutional factors on CO2 emissions: Evidence from Sub-Saharan Africa economies," Utilities Policy, Elsevier, vol. 41(C), pages 85-94.
    3. Rodríguez, Miguel & Pena-Boquete, Yolanda & Pardo-Fernández, Juan Carlos, 2016. "Revisiting Environmental Kuznets Curves through the energy price lens," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 95(C), pages 32-41.
    4. Tutulmaz, Onur, 2015. "Environmental Kuznets Curve time series application for Turkey: Why controversial results exist for similar models?," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 50(C), pages 73-81.
    5. Massimiliano Mazzanti & Giovanni Marin & Susanna Mancinelli & Francesco Nicolli, 2015. "Carbon dioxide reducing environmental innovations, sector upstream/downstream integration and policy: evidence from the EU," Empirica, Springer;Austrian Institute for Economic Research;Austrian Economic Association, vol. 42(4), pages 709-735, November.
    6. Massimiliano Mazzanti & Antonio Musolesi, 2015. "Unveiling structural breaks in long-run economic development-CO2 relationships," SEEDS Working Papers 1815, SEEDS, Sustainability Environmental Economics and Dynamics Studies, revised Dec 2015.
    7. Tiba, Sofien & Omri, Anis, 2017. "Literature survey on the relationships between energy, environment and economic growth," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 69(C), pages 1129-1146.
    8. Sam, Aflaki & Syed Abul, Basher & Andrea, Masini, 2016. "Does economic growth matter? Technology-push, demand-pull and endogenous drivers of innovation in the renewable energy industry," MPRA Paper 69773, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    9. repec:kap:enreec:v:67:y:2017:i:4:d:10.1007_s10640-016-0009-3 is not listed on IDEAS
    10. Valeria Costantini & Francesco Crespi & Elena Paglialunga, 2017. "The Employment Impact Of Private And Public Actions For Energy Efficiency: Evidence From European Industries," Departmental Working Papers of Economics - University 'Roma Tre' 0227, Department of Economics - University Roma Tre.
    11. Mazzanti, M. & Musolesi, A., 2013. "Economic development and CO2 emissions: assessing the effect of policy and energy time events for advanced countries," Working Papers 2013-11, Grenoble Applied Economics Laboratory (GAEL).

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    Keywords

    ENVIRONMENTAL KUZNETS CURVE; SEMIPARAMETRIC MODELS; GENERALIZED ADDITIVE MIXED MODELS; INTERACTION MODELS;

    JEL classification:

    • C14 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods and Methodology: General - - - Semiparametric and Nonparametric Methods: General
    • C23 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Models with Panel Data; Spatio-temporal Models
    • Q53 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Air Pollution; Water Pollution; Noise; Hazardous Waste; Solid Waste; Recycling

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