Growth and the pollution convergence hypothesis: a nonparametric approach
The pollution-convergence hypothesis is formalized in a neoclassical growth model with optimal emissions reduction: pollution growth rates are positively correlated with output growth (scale effect) but negatively correlated with emission levels (defensive effect). This dynamic law is empirically tested for two major and regulated air pollutants - nitrogen oxides (NOX) and sulfur oxides (SOX) - with a panel of 25 European countries spanning over years 1980-2005. Traditional parametric models are rejected by the data. However, more flexible regression techniques - semiparametric additive specifications and fully nonparametric regressions with discrete and continuous factors - confirm the existence of the predicted positive and defensive effects. By analyzing the spatial distributions of per capita emissions, we also show that cross-country pollution gaps have decreased over the period for both pollutants and within the Eastern as well as the Western European areas. A Markov modeling approach predicts further cross-country absolute convergence, in particular for SOX. The latter results hold in the presence of spatial non-convergence in per capita income levels within both regions.
|Date of creation:||Sep 2009|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: ETH-CEPE, Zürichbergstrasse 18, 8032 Zürich|
Phone: +41-1-632 06 50
Fax: +41-1-632 16 22
Web page: http://www.cepe.ethz.ch
More information through EDIRC
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- James Andreoni & Arik Levinson, 1998.
"The Simple Analytics of the Environmental Kuznets Curve,"
NBER Working Papers
6739, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Andreoni, James & Levinson, Arik, 2001. "The simple analytics of the environmental Kuznets curve," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 80(2), pages 269-286, May.
- John A. List, 1999. "Have Air Pollutant Emissions Converged Among U.S. Regions? Evidence from Unit Root Tests," Southern Economic Journal, Southern Economic Association, vol. 66(1), pages 144-155, July.
- Stokey, Nancy L, 1998. "Are There Limits to Growth?," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 39(1), pages 1-31, February.
- William A. Brock & M. Scott Taylor, 2004.
"The Green Solow Model,"
NBER Working Papers
10557, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Frederick Ploeg & Cees Withagen, 1991. "Pollution control and the Ramsey problem," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 1(2), pages 215-236, June.
- Johnson, Paul, 1999.
"A Nonparametric Analysis of Income Convergence Across the US States,"
Vassar College Department of Economics Working Paper Series
46, Vassar College Department of Economics.
- Johnson, Paul A., 2000. "A nonparametric analysis of income convergence across the US states," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 69(2), pages 219-223, November.
- Erwin Bulte & John List & Mark Strazicich, 2007.
"Regulatory Federalism and the Distribution of Air Pollutant Emissions,"
Natural Field Experiments
00481, The Field Experiments Website.
- Erwin Bulte & John A. List & Mark C. Strazicich, 2007. "Regulatory Federalism And The Distribution Of Air Pollutant Emissions," Journal of Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 47(1), pages 155-178.
- Erwin Bulte & John A. List & Mark C. Strazicich, 2004. "Regulatory Federalism and the Distribution of Air Pollutant Emissions," Working Papers 04-16, Department of Economics, Appalachian State University.
- Murdoch, James C & Sandler, Todd & Sargent, Keith, 1997. "A Tale of Two Collectives: Sulphur versus Nitrogen Oxides Emission Reduction in Europe," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 64(254), pages 281-301, May.
- Li, Qi & Racine, Jeff, 2003. "Nonparametric estimation of distributions with categorical and continuous data," Journal of Multivariate Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 86(2), pages 266-292, August.
- Jianqing Fan & Runze Li, 2004. "New Estimation and Model Selection Procedures for Semiparametric Modeling in Longitudinal Data Analysis," Journal of the American Statistical Association, American Statistical Association, vol. 99, pages 710-723, January.
- Quah, Danny, 1993.
"Empirical cross-section dynamics in economic growth,"
European Economic Review,
Elsevier, vol. 37(2-3), pages 426-434, April.
- Danny Quah, 1992. "Empirical Cross-Section Dynamics in Economic Growth," FMG Discussion Papers dp154, Financial Markets Group.
- Danny Quah, 1992. "Empirical cross-section dynamics in economic growth," Discussion Paper / Institute for Empirical Macroeconomics 75, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis.
- Maasoumi, Esfandiar & Racine, Jeff, 2006.
"Growth And Convergence: A Profile Of Distribution Dynamics And Mobility,"
Departmental Working Papers
0605, Southern Methodist University, Department of Economics.
- Maasoumi, Esfandiar & Racine, Jeff & Stengos, Thanasis, 2007. "Growth and convergence: A profile of distribution dynamics and mobility," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 136(2), pages 483-508, February.
- Hsiao, Cheng & Li, Qi & Racine, Jeffrey S., 2007.
"A consistent model specification test with mixed discrete and continuous data,"
Journal of Econometrics,
Elsevier, vol. 140(2), pages 802-826, October.
- Cheng Hsiao & Qi Li & Jeff Racine, 2006. "A Consistent Model Specification Test with Mixed Discrete and Continuous Data," IEPR Working Papers 06.47, Institute of Economic Policy Research (IEPR).
- Ordás Criado, C. & Grether, J.-M., 2011.
"Convergence in per capita CO2 emissions: A robust distributional approach,"
Resource and Energy Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 33(3), pages 637-665, September.
- Carlos Ordás Criado & Jean-Marie Grether, 2010. "Convergence in per capita CO2 emissions: a robust distributional approach," CEPE Working paper series 10-70, CEPE Center for Energy Policy and Economics, ETH Zurich.
- Bratberg, Espen & Tjotta, Sigve & Oines, Torgeir, 2005.
"Do voluntary international environmental agreements work?,"
Journal of Environmental Economics and Management,
Elsevier, vol. 50(3), pages 583-597, November.
- Bratberg, Espen & Tjøtta, Sigve & Øines, Torgeir, 2003. "Do voluntary international environmental agreements work?," Working Papers in Economics 06/03, University of Bergen, Department of Economics.
- Finus, Michael & Tjotta, Sigve, 2003. "The Oslo Protocol on sulfur reduction: the great leap forward?," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 87(9-10), pages 2031-2048, September.
- William A. Brock & M. Scott Taylor, 2004.
"Economic Growth and the Environment: A Review of Theory and Empirics,"
NBER Working Papers
10854, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Brock, William A. & Taylor, M. Scott, 2005. "Economic Growth and the Environment: A Review of Theory and Empirics," Handbook of Economic Growth, in: Philippe Aghion & Steven Durlauf (ed.), Handbook of Economic Growth, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 28, pages 1749-1821 Elsevier.
- Racine, Jeff & Li, Qi, 2004. "Nonparametric estimation of regression functions with both categorical and continuous data," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 119(1), pages 99-130, March.
- Breusch, T S & Pagan, A R, 1979. "A Simple Test for Heteroscedasticity and Random Coefficient Variation," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 47(5), pages 1287-94, September.
- Nikolay Nenovsky & S. Statev, 2006. "Introduction," Post-Print halshs-00260898, HAL.
- Mark Strazicich & John List, 2003.
"Are CO 2 Emission Levels Converging Among Industrial Countries?,"
Environmental & Resource Economics,
Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 24(3), pages 263-271, March.
- John List & Mark Strazicich, 2003. "Are CO2 Emission Levels Converging Among Industrial Countries?," Natural Field Experiments 00508, The Field Experiments Website.
- Simon N. Wood, 2004. "Stable and Efficient Multiple Smoothing Parameter Estimation for Generalized Additive Models," Journal of the American Statistical Association, American Statistical Association, vol. 99, pages 673-686, January.
- Koenker, Roger, 1981. "A note on studentizing a test for heteroscedasticity," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 17(1), pages 107-112, September.
- Maindonald, John, 2006. "Generalized Additive Models: An Introduction with R," Journal of Statistical Software, Foundation for Open Access Statistics, vol. 16(b03).
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:cee:wpcepe:09-66. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Carlos Ordas)
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.