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A Tale of Two Collectives: Sulphur versus Nitrogen Oxides Emission Reduction in Europe


  • Murdoch, James C
  • Sandler, Todd
  • Sargent, Keith


A theoretical model of emission reductions is specified that accounts for voluntary and nonvoluntary behavior regarding the adherence to the Helsinki and Sofia Protocols, which mandated emission reductions for sulphur and nitrogen oxides, respectively. From this model, the authors derive an econometric specification for the demand for emission reductions that adjusts for the spatial dispersion of the pollutant. When tested for twenty-five European nations, the model performs well for sulphur cutbacks. Less satisfying results are obtained for nitrogen oxides, because the model's assumption of a unitary actor at the national level is less descriptive. Collective action considerations indicate that sulphur emissions are easier to control than those of nitrogen oxides. Copyright 1997 by The London School of Economics and Political Science

Suggested Citation

  • Murdoch, James C & Sandler, Todd & Sargent, Keith, 1997. "A Tale of Two Collectives: Sulphur versus Nitrogen Oxides Emission Reduction in Europe," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 64(254), pages 281-301, May.
  • Handle: RePEc:bla:econom:v:64:y:1997:i:254:p:281-301

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