Co-fluctuation patterns of per capita carbon dioxide emissions: The role of energy markets
This paper applies principal component analysis to investigate the linkages, or dominant co-fluctuation patterns, of per capita carbon dioxide emissions across countries for the time period 1950–2000. Energy resource world markets are investigated as an offsetting mechanism possibly coordinating emission fluctuations between countries. The results of the analysis provide evidence that world energy resource markets are acting as a coordinating mechanism for emission fluctuations in most cases. The results also suggest that until recently the dominant emission co-fluctuation pattern for developed countries differs from the dominant emission co-fluctuation pattern for developing countries. The common fluctuation pattern found in the 1984–2000 time period suggests that an offsetting mechanism does exist and will help contain global per capita emissions into the future. The strong degree that emissions are linked between countries and energy markets acting as an offsetting mechanism suggests that to be successful a global agreement to address climate change must require emission reductions by all major emitters, not just the developed countries.
If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Andrew N. Kleit, 2001. "Are Regional Oil Markets Growing Closer Together?: An Arbitrage Cost Approach," The Energy Journal, International Association for Energy Economics, vol. 0(Number 2), pages 1-15.
- William Brock & M. Taylor, 2010.
"The Green Solow model,"
Journal of Economic Growth,
Springer, vol. 15(2), pages 127-153, June.
- Gene M. Grossman & Alan B. Krueger, 1991.
"Environmental Impacts of a North American Free Trade Agreement,"
NBER Working Papers
3914, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Grossman, Gene & Krueger, Alan B, 1992. "Environmental Impacts of a North American Free Trade Agreement," CEPR Discussion Papers 644, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Grossman, G.M & Krueger, A.B., 1991. "Environmental Impacts of a North American Free Trade Agreement," Papers 158, Princeton, Woodrow Wilson School - Public and International Affairs.
- Ross Mckitrick & Mark C. Strazicich & Junsoo Lee, 2013. "Long‐Term Forecasting of Global Carbon Dioxide Emissions: Reducing Uncertainties Using a Per Capita Approach," Journal of Forecasting, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 32(5), pages 435-451, 08.
- Alison Stegman, 2005.
"Convergence In Carbon Emissions Per Capita,"
CAMA Working Papers
2005-08, Centre for Applied Macroeconomic Analysis, Crawford School of Public Policy, The Australian National University.
- Ordás Criado, C. & Grether, J.-M., 2011.
"Convergence in per capita CO2 emissions: A robust distributional approach,"
Resource and Energy Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 33(3), pages 637-665, September.
- Carlos Ordás Criado & Jean-Marie Grether, 2010. "Convergence in per capita CO2 emissions: a robust distributional approach," CEPE Working paper series 10-70, CEPE Center for Energy Policy and Economics, ETH Zurich.
- Lopez Ramon, 1994. "The Environment as a Factor of Production: The Effects of Economic Growth and Trade Liberalization," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 27(2), pages 163-184, September.
- Hyungsik Roger MOON & Benoit PERRON, 2002.
"Testing For A Unit Root In Panels With Dynamic Factors,"
Cahiers de recherche
18-2002, Centre interuniversitaire de recherche en économie quantitative, CIREQ.
- Moon, H.R.Hyungsik Roger & Perron, Benoit, 2004. "Testing for a unit root in panels with dynamic factors," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 122(1), pages 81-126, September.
- MOON, Hyungsik Roger & PERRON, Benoit., 2002. "Testing for a Unit Root in Panels with Dynamic Factors," Cahiers de recherche 2002-18, Universite de Montreal, Departement de sciences economiques.
- Grossman, Gene M & Krueger, Alan B, 1995.
"Economic Growth and the Environment,"
The Quarterly Journal of Economics,
MIT Press, vol. 110(2), pages 353-77, May.
- James G. MacKinnon, 2002. "Bootstrap inference in econometrics," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 35(4), pages 615-645, November.
- Elliott, Graham & Rothenberg, Thomas J & Stock, James H, 1996.
"Efficient Tests for an Autoregressive Unit Root,"
Econometric Society, vol. 64(4), pages 813-36, July.
- Graham Elliott & Thomas J. Rothenberg & James H. Stock, 1992. "Efficient Tests for an Autoregressive Unit Root," NBER Technical Working Papers 0130, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Tom Doan, . "ERSTEST: RATS procedure to perform Elliott-Rothenberg-Stock unit root tests," Statistical Software Components RTS00066, Boston College Department of Economics.
- Tom Doan, . "GLSDETREND: RATS procedure to perform local to unity GLS detrending," Statistical Software Components RTS00077, Boston College Department of Economics.
- Jushan Bai & Serena Ng, 2001.
"A Panic Attack on Unit Roots and Cointegration,"
Economics Working Paper Archive
469, The Johns Hopkins University,Department of Economics.
- Cochrane, John H., 1991. "A critique of the application of unit root tests," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 15(2), pages 275-284, April.
- Joseph Aldy, 2006.
"Per Capita Carbon Dioxide Emissions: Convergence or Divergence?,"
Environmental & Resource Economics,
European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 33(4), pages 533-555, 04.
- Aldy, Joseph, 2005. "Per Capita Carbon Dioxide Emissions: Convergence or Divergence?," Discussion Papers dp-05-53, Resources For the Future.
- Carlino, Gerald A. & Mills, Leonard O., 1993. "Are U.S. regional incomes converging? : A time series analysis," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(2), pages 335-346, November.
- Werner Antweiler & Brian R. Copeland & M. Scott Taylor, 2001.
"Is Free Trade Good for the Environment?,"
American Economic Review,
American Economic Association, vol. 91(4), pages 877-908, September.
- Romero-Avila, Diego, 2008. "Questioning the empirical basis of the environmental Kuznets curve for CO2: New evidence from a panel stationarity test robust to multiple breaks and cross-dependence," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 64(3), pages 559-574, January.
- Kwiatkowski, D. & Phillips, P.C.B. & Schmidt, P., 1990.
"Testing the Null Hypothesis of Stationarity Against the Alternative of Unit Root : How Sure are we that Economic Time Series have a Unit Root?,"
8905, Michigan State - Econometrics and Economic Theory.
- Kwiatkowski, Denis & Phillips, Peter C. B. & Schmidt, Peter & Shin, Yongcheol, 1992. "Testing the null hypothesis of stationarity against the alternative of a unit root : How sure are we that economic time series have a unit root?," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 54(1-3), pages 159-178.
- Denis Kwiatkowski & Peter C.B. Phillips & Peter Schmidt, 1991. "Testing the Null Hypothesis of Stationarity Against the Alternative of a Unit Root: How Sure Are We That Economic Time Series Have a Unit Root?," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 979, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University.
- Phu Nguyen Van, 2005.
"Distribution Dynamics of CO 2 Emissions,"
Environmental & Resource Economics,
European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 32(4), pages 495-508, December.
- Stock J.H. & Watson M.W., 2002. "Forecasting Using Principal Components From a Large Number of Predictors," Journal of the American Statistical Association, American Statistical Association, vol. 97, pages 1167-1179, December.
- Mario Forni & Lucrezia Reichlin, 1998.
"Let's get real: a factor analytical approach to disaggregated business cycle dynamics,"
ULB Institutional Repository
2013/10147, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
- Forni, Mario & Reichlin, Lucrezia, 1998. "Let's Get Real: A Factor Analytical Approach to Disaggregated Business Cycle Dynamics," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 65(3), pages 453-73, July.
- Warwick J. McKibbin & Alison Stegman, 2005. "Convergence And Per Capita Carbon Emissions," CAMA Working Papers 2005-10, Centre for Applied Macroeconomic Analysis, Crawford School of Public Policy, The Australian National University.
- Andreoni, James & Levinson, Arik, 2001.
"The simple analytics of the environmental Kuznets curve,"
Journal of Public Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 80(2), pages 269-286, May.
- James Andreoni & Arik Levinson, 1998. "The Simple Analytics of the Environmental Kuznets Curve," NBER Working Papers 6739, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Smith, Ron & Zoega, Gylfi, 2007. "Global unemployment shocks," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 94(3), pages 433-438, March.
- S. Gurcan Gulen, 1999. "Regionalization in the World Crude Oil Market: Further Evidence," The Energy Journal, International Association for Energy Economics, vol. 0(Number 1), pages 125-139.
- Quah, Danny T., 1996. "Empirics for economic growth and convergence," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 40(6), pages 1353-1375, June.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:eneeco:v:39:y:2013:i:c:p:1-12. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Zhang, Lei)
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.