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Modelling and smoothing parameter estimation with multiple quadratic penalties


  • S. N. Wood


Penalized likelihood methods provide a range of practical modelling tools, including spline smoothing, generalized additive models and variants of ridge regression. Selecting the correct weights for penalties is a critical part of using these methods and in the single‐penalty case the analyst has several well‐founded techniques to choose from. However, many modelling problems suggest a formulation employing multiple penalties, and here general methodology is lacking. A wide family of models with multiple penalties can be fitted to data by iterative solution of the generalized ridge regression problem minimize ||W1/2 (Xp−y) ||2ρ+Σi=1m θip′Sip (p is a parameter vector, X a design matrix, Si a non‐negative definite coefficient matrix defining the ith penalty with associated smoothing parameter θi, W a diagonal weight matrix, y a vector of data or pseudodata and ρ an ‘overall’ smoothing parameter included for computational efficiency). This paper shows how smoothing parameter selection can be performed efficiently by applying generalized cross‐validation to this problem and how this allows non‐linear, generalized linear and linear models to be fitted using multiple penalties, substantially increasing the scope of penalized modelling methods. Examples of non‐linear modelling, generalized additive modelling and anisotropic smoothing are given.

Suggested Citation

  • S. N. Wood, 2000. "Modelling and smoothing parameter estimation with multiple quadratic penalties," Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series B, Royal Statistical Society, vol. 62(2), pages 413-428.
  • Handle: RePEc:bla:jorssb:v:62:y:2000:i:2:p:413-428
    DOI: 10.1111/1467-9868.00240

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