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Do voluntary international environmental agreements work?

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We consider the effects of international environmental agreements, using the Sofia Protocol on the reduction of nitrogen oxides. Our analysis utilizes panel data from 25 European countries for the period 1980–96. We divide these countries into “participants” and “non-participants”—that is, those that did and those that did not ratify the Sofia Protocol, respectively. Using a difference in difference estimator, we find that signing the treaty has a significant positive impact on emission reduction. The yearly reduction is approximately 2.4 percent greater than it would have been without the Sofia Protocol.

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  • Bratberg, Espen & Tjøtta, Sigve & Øines, Torgeir, 2003. "Do voluntary international environmental agreements work?," Working Papers in Economics 06/03, University of Bergen, Department of Economics.
  • Handle: RePEc:hhs:bergec:2003_006
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    1. Lange, Andreas & Vogt, Carsten, 2003. "Cooperation in international environmental negotiations due to a preference for equity," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 87(9-10), pages 2049-2067, September.
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    Cited by:

    1. Clerides, Sofronis & Zachariadis, Theodoros, 2008. "The effect of standards and fuel prices on automobile fuel economy: An international analysis," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 30(5), pages 2657-2672, September.
    2. John Swinton & Amin Sarkar, 2008. "The benefits of the Kyoto Protocol to developing countries," Environment, Development and Sustainability: A Multidisciplinary Approach to the Theory and Practice of Sustainable Development, Springer, vol. 10(6), pages 731-743, December.
    3. Aurélie Slechten & Vincenzo Verardi, 2016. "Measuring the Impact of Multiple Air Pollution Agreements on Global CO2 Emissions," Land Economics, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 92(3), pages 534-554.
    4. Alexandre Sauquet, 2014. "Exploring the nature of inter-country interactions in the process of ratifying international environmental agreements: the case of the Kyoto Protocol," Public Choice, Springer, vol. 159(1), pages 141-158, April.
    5. Partha Sen, 2008. "Fdeveloping Economies And The Environment - The Role Of Trade And Capital Flows," Working papers 172, Centre for Development Economics, Delhi School of Economics.
    6. Ordás Criado, C. & Valente, S. & Stengos, T., 2011. "Growth and pollution convergence: Theory and evidence," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 62(2), pages 199-214, September.
    7. Tobias Böhmelt & Jürg Vollenweider, 2015. "Information flows and social capital through linkages: the effectiveness of the CLRTAP network," International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics, Springer, vol. 15(2), pages 105-123, May.
    8. Lin, Yu-Hsuan, 2018. "Reciprocity Reciprocity in Climate Coalition Formationin Climate Coalition Formation," MPRA Paper 86494, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    9. Aakvik, Arild & Tjøtta, Sigve, 2011. "Do collective actions clear common air? The effect of international environmental protocols on sulphur emissions," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 27(2), pages 343-351, June.
    10. Stefan Borsky & Paul A. Raschky, 2011. "A Spatial Econometric Analysis of Compliance with an International Environmental Agreement on Open Access Resources," Working Papers 2011-10, Faculty of Economics and Statistics, University of Innsbruck.
    11. Stefan Borsky & Andrea Leiter & Michael Pfaffermayr, 2011. "Does going green pay off? The effect of an international environmental agreement on tropical timber trade," Working Papers 2011-17, Faculty of Economics and Statistics, University of Innsbruck.
    12. Borsky, Stefan & Raschky, Paul A., 2012. "A Spatial Econometric Analysis of Compliance with an International Environmental Agreement on an Open Access Resource," 2012 Conference (56th), February 7-10, 2012, Freemantle, Australia 124425, Australian Agricultural and Resource Economics Society.
    13. Daniel Matisoff, 2010. "Are international environmental agreements enforceable? implications for institutional design," International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics, Springer, vol. 10(3), pages 165-186, September.
    14. Sofronis Clerides & Theodoros Zachariadis, 2006. "Are standards Effective in Improving Automobile Fuel Economy?," University of Cyprus Working Papers in Economics 6-2006, University of Cyprus Department of Economics.
    15. Jürg Vollenweider, 2013. "The effectiveness of international environmental agreements," International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics, Springer, vol. 13(3), pages 343-367, September.
    16. Lin, Yu-Hsuan, 2018. "How Social Preferences Influence the Stability of a Climate Coalition," MPRA Paper 85428, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    17. Carlos Ordás Criado & Simone Valente & Thanasis Stengos, 2009. "Growth and the pollution convergence hypothesis: a nonparametric approach," CEPE Working paper series 09-66, CEPE Center for Energy Policy and Economics, ETH Zurich.
    18. Alexandre SAUQUET, 2011. "Exploring the Nature of Strategic Interactions in the Ratification Process of the Kyoto Protocol," Working Papers 201119, CERDI.
    19. Aurelie Slechten & Vincenzo Verardi, 2014. "Assessing the effectiveness of global air-pollution treaties on CO2 emissions," Working Papers 64981625, Lancaster University Management School, Economics Department.
    20. Lange, Ian, 2008. "Evaluating Voluntary Measures with Spillovers: The Case of Coal Combustion Products Partnership," Stirling Economics Discussion Papers 2008-24, University of Stirling, Division of Economics.
    21. Lin, Yu-Hsuan, 2017. "The Effect of Inequality Aversion on a Climate Coalition Formation: Theory and Experimental Evidence," MPRA Paper 84097, University Library of Munich, Germany.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    international environmental agreements; public goods; evaluation;

    JEL classification:

    • D62 - Microeconomics - - Welfare Economics - - - Externalities
    • H49 - Public Economics - - Publicly Provided Goods - - - Other
    • Q28 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Renewable Resources and Conservation - - - Government Policy

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