IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/udf/wpaper/201105.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Income and time related effects in EKC

Author

Listed:
  • Massimiliano Mazzanti

    ()

  • Antonio Musolesi

Abstract

This paper documents the structural differences between climate change leading `actors' as Northern EU countries, and `lagging actors' - southern EU countries and the `Umbrella group' - with regard to their long run carbon-income relationships. We show that such categorization gives relevant policy and methodological insights. We investigate the issue of cross-country heterogeneity and the heterogeneity biases associated to standard panel data estimates but also disentangle time related and income effects. Parametric and semi parametric panel models allowing for time invariant unobserved heterogeneity robustly show that the groups of countries that were in the `Kyoto arena' less in favour of stringent climate policy, have yet to experience a turning point. Northern EU instead shows bell shapes. The key result is however obtained by estimating a semi-parametric random growth model. Country specific time related factors - that may represent latent innovation and policy features of countries - have been relatively more relevant than income effects in explaining the occurrence of such Kuznets curves. Overall, the countries differ more on their carbon-time relation than on the carbon-income relation which is in almost all cases monotonic positive. Just a few Nordic countries show a bell curve in both income and time related factors.

Suggested Citation

  • Massimiliano Mazzanti & Antonio Musolesi, 2011. "Income and time related effects in EKC," Working Papers 201105, University of Ferrara, Department of Economics.
  • Handle: RePEc:udf:wpaper:201105
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://out.economia.unife.it/uploads/dip_deit/quaderni/201105.pdf
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Andreas Löschel & Dirk T.G. Rübbelke, 2009. "Impure public goods and technological interdependencies," Journal of Economic Studies, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 36(6), pages 596-615, October.
    2. Brian R. Copeland & M. Scott Taylor, 2004. "Trade, Growth, and the Environment," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 42(1), pages 7-71, March.
    3. Wagner, Martin, 2008. "The carbon Kuznets curve: A cloudy picture emitted by bad econometrics?," Resource and Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 30(3), pages 388-408, August.
    4. Huang, Ho-Chuan (River) & Lin, Shu-Chin, 2007. "Semiparametric Bayesian inference of the Kuznets hypothesis," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 83(2), pages 491-505, July.
    5. Halkos, George E., 2003. "Environmental Kuznets Curve for sulfur: evidence using GMM estimation and random coefficient panel data models," Environment and Development Economics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 8(04), pages 581-601, October.
    6. Holtz-Eakin, Douglas & Selden, Thomas M., 1995. "Stoking the fires? CO2 emissions and economic growth," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 57(1), pages 85-101, May.
    7. Nelson C. Mark & Masao Ogaki & Donggyu Sul, 2005. "Dynamic Seemingly Unrelated Cointegrating Regressions," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 72(3), pages 797-820.
    8. Khanna, Neha & Plassmann, Florenz, 2007. "Total factor productivity and the Environmental Kuznets Curve: A comment and some intuition," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 63(1), pages 54-58, June.
    9. Simone Borghesi, 2011. "The European emission trading scheme and renewable energy policies: credible targets for incredible results?," International Journal of Sustainable Economy, Inderscience Enterprises Ltd, vol. 3(3), pages 312-327.
    10. Peter C. B. Phillips & Hyungsik R. Moon, 1999. "Linear Regression Limit Theory for Nonstationary Panel Data," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 67(5), pages 1057-1112, September.
    11. Antoine Dechezleprêtre & Matthieu Glachant & Ivan Haščič & Nick Johnstone & Yann Ménière, 2011. "Invention and Transfer of Climate Change--Mitigation Technologies: A Global Analysis," Review of Environmental Economics and Policy, Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 5(1), pages 109-130, Winter.
    12. Andreoni, James & Levinson, Arik, 2001. "The simple analytics of the environmental Kuznets curve," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 80(2), pages 269-286, May.
    13. Junsoo Lee & John List, 2004. "Examining Trends of Criteria Air Pollutants: Are the Effects of Governmental Intervention Transitory?," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 29(1), pages 21-37, September.
    14. Stern, David I., 2004. "The Rise and Fall of the Environmental Kuznets Curve," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 32(8), pages 1419-1439, August.
    15. Charles, Amelie & Darne, Olivier, 2006. "Large shocks and the September 11th terrorist attacks on international stock markets," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 23(4), pages 683-698, July.
    16. Baltagi, Badi H. & Bresson, Georges & Pirotte, Alain, 2002. "Comparison of forecast performance for homogeneous, heterogeneous and shrinkage estimators: Some empirical evidence from US electricity and natural-gas consumption," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 76(3), pages 375-382, August.
    17. Cole, M.A. & Rayner, A.J. & Bates, J.M., 1997. "The environmental Kuznets curve: an empirical analysis," Environment and Development Economics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 2(04), pages 401-416, November.
    18. Swamy, P A V B, 1970. "Efficient Inference in a Random Coefficient Regression Model," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 38(2), pages 311-323, March.
    19. Matthieu Glachant & Antoine Dechezleprêtre & Ivan Hascic & Nick Johnstone & Yann Ménière, 2009. "Invention and Transfer of Climate Change Mitigation Technologies on a Global Scale: A Study Drawing on Patent Data," Working Papers 2009.82, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei.
    20. Vollebergh, H.R.J. & Dijkgraaf, E. & Melenberg, B., 2005. "Environmental Kuznets Curves for CO2 : Heterogeneity Versus Homogeneity," Discussion Paper 2005-25, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research.
    21. Jushan Bai & Serena Ng, 2004. "A PANIC Attack on Unit Roots and Cointegration," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 72(4), pages 1127-1177, July.
    22. M. Hashem Pesaran, 2007. "A simple panel unit root test in the presence of cross-section dependence," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 22(2), pages 265-312.
    23. Heckman, J.J. & Hotz, V.J., 1988. "Choosing Among Alternative Nonexperimental Methods For Estimating The Impact Of Social Programs: The Case Of Manpower Training," University of Chicago - Economics Research Center 88-12, Chicago - Economics Research Center.
    24. Pesaran, M. Hashem & Smith, Ron, 1995. "Estimating long-run relationships from dynamic heterogeneous panels," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 68(1), pages 79-113, July.
    25. Agnolucci, Paolo, 2009. "The effect of the German and British environmental taxation reforms: A simple assessment," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(8), pages 3043-3051, August.
    26. Chimeli, Ariaster B. & Braden, John B., 2005. "Total factor productivity and the environmental Kuznets curve," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 49(2), pages 366-380, March.
    27. Selden Thomas M. & Song Daqing, 1994. "Environmental Quality and Development: Is There a Kuznets Curve for Air Pollution Emissions?," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 27(2), pages 147-162, September.
    28. Marzio Galeotti & Matteo Manera & Alessandro Lanza, 2006. "On the Robustness of Robustness Checks of the Environmental Kuznets Curve," UNIMI - Research Papers in Economics, Business, and Statistics unimi-1027, Universitá degli Studi di Milano.
    29. Elbert Dijkgraaf & Herman Vollebergh, 2005. "A Test for Parameter Homogeneity in CO 2 Panel EKC Estimations," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 32(2), pages 229-239, October.
    30. William Brock & M. Taylor, 2010. "The Green Solow model," Journal of Economic Growth, Springer, vol. 15(2), pages 127-153, June.
    31. Osman Zaim & Fatma Taskin, 2000. "A Kuznets Curve in Environmental Efficiency: An Application on OECD Countries," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 17(1), pages 21-36, September.
    32. repec:ebl:ecbull:v:14:y:2005:i:1:p:1-7 is not listed on IDEAS
    33. Adam B. Jaffe & Karen Palmer, 1997. "Environmental Regulation And Innovation: A Panel Data Study," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 79(4), pages 610-619, November.
    34. T. S. Breusch & A. R. Pagan, 1980. "The Lagrange Multiplier Test and its Applications to Model Specification in Econometrics," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 47(1), pages 239-253.
    35. Adam B. Jaffe et al., 1995. "Environmental Regulation and the Competitiveness of U.S. Manufacturing: What Does the Evidence Tell Us?," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 33(1), pages 132-163, March.
    36. Nick Johnstone & Ivan Haščič & David Popp, 2010. "Renewable Energy Policies and Technological Innovation: Evidence Based on Patent Counts," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 45(1), pages 133-155, January.
    37. Newey, Whitney & West, Kenneth, 2014. "A simple, positive semi-definite, heteroscedasticity and autocorrelation consistent covariance matrix," Applied Econometrics, Publishing House "SINERGIA PRESS", vol. 33(1), pages 125-132.
    38. Gilbert E. Metcalf, 2009. "Designing a Carbon Tax to Reduce U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions," Review of Environmental Economics and Policy, Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 3(1), pages 63-83, Winter.
    39. Kajal Lahiri, 2005. "Analysis of Panel Data," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 87(4), pages 1093-1095.
    40. Pesaran, M.H., 2004. "‘General Diagnostic Tests for Cross Section Dependence in Panels’," Cambridge Working Papers in Economics 0435, Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge.
    41. David Popp, 2002. "Induced Innovation and Energy Prices," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 92(1), pages 160-180, March.
    42. Jongsup Kim, 2004. "Growth of regional economy and income inequality: county-level evidence from Florida, USA," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 36(2), pages 173-183.
    43. Gene M. Grossman & Alan B. Krueger, 1995. "Economic Growth and the Environment," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 110(2), pages 353-377.
    44. Nikolay Nenovsky & S. Statev, 2006. "Introduction," Post-Print halshs-00260898, HAL.
    45. Galeotti, Marzio & Lanza, Alessandro & Pauli, Francesco, 2006. "Reassessing the environmental Kuznets curve for CO2 emissions: A robustness exercise," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 57(1), pages 152-163, April.
    46. Pasche, Markus, 2002. "Technical progress, structural change, and the environmental Kuznets curve," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 42(3), pages 381-389, September.
    47. Jeffrey A. Frankel & Andrew K. Rose, 2005. "Is Trade Good or Bad for the Environment? Sorting Out the Causality," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 87(1), pages 85-91, February.
    48. Fomby, Thomas B. & Hayes, Kathy J., 1990. "An intervention analysis of the war on poverty : Poverty's persistence and political-business cycle implications," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 43(1-2), pages 197-212.
    49. John C. Driscoll & Aart C. Kraay, 1998. "Consistent Covariance Matrix Estimation With Spatially Dependent Panel Data," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 80(4), pages 549-560, November.
    50. Jo Thori Lind & Halvor Mehlum, 2010. "With or Without U? The Appropriate Test for a U-Shaped Relationship," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 72(1), pages 109-118, February.
    51. Chimeli, Ariaster B. & Braden, John B., 2009. "A capital scarcity theory of the environmental Kuznets curve," Environment and Development Economics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 14(05), pages 541-564, October.
    52. Katrin Millock & Céline Nauges, 2006. "Ex Post Evaluation of an Earmarked Tax on Air Pollution," Land Economics, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 82(1), pages 68-84.
    53. Henrik Jacobsen, 2000. "Energy Demand, Structural Change and Trade: A Decomposition Analysis of the Danish Manufacturing Industry," Economic Systems Research, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 12(3), pages 319-343.
    54. Young-Ju Kim & Chong Gu, 2004. "Smoothing spline Gaussian regression: more scalable computation via efficient approximation," Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series B, Royal Statistical Society, vol. 66(2), pages 337-356.
    55. Badi H. Baltagi & James M. Griffin & Weiwen Xiong, 2000. "To Pool Or Not To Pool: Homogeneous Versus Hetergeneous Estimations Applied to Cigarette Demand," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 82(1), pages 117-126, February.
    56. Saikkonen, Pentti, 1991. "Asymptotically Efficient Estimation of Cointegration Regressions," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 7(01), pages 1-21, March.
    57. Lloyd, Tim & Morrissey, Oliver & Reed, Geoffrey, 1998. "Estimating the Impact of Anti-dumping and Anti-cartel Actions Using Intervention Analysis," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 108(447), pages 458-476, March.
    58. Brajer, Victor & Mead, Robert W. & Xiao, Feng, 2008. "Health benefits of tunneling through the Chinese environmental Kuznets curve (EKC)," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 66(4), pages 674-686, July.
    59. Vollebergh, Herman R.J. & Melenberg, Bertrand & Dijkgraaf, Elbert, 2009. "Identifying reduced-form relations with panel data: The case of pollution and income," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 58(1), pages 27-42, July.
    60. Shafik, Nemat, 1994. "Economic Development and Environmental Quality: An Econometric Analysis," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 46(0), pages 757-773, Supplemen.
    61. Badi H. Baltagi & Georges Bresson & Alain Pirotte, 2004. "Tobin q: Forecast performance for hierarchical Bayes, shrinkage, heterogeneous and homogeneous panel data estimators," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 29(1), pages 107-113, January.
    62. Aidt, Toke S., 2010. "Green taxes: Refunding rules and lobbying," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 60(1), pages 31-43, July.
    63. Thompson, Patrick A & Noordewier, Thomas, 1992. "Estimating the Effects of Consumer Incentive Programs on Domestic Automobile Sales," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 10(4), pages 409-417, October.
    64. Maddala, G S, et al, 1997. "Estimation of Short-Run and Long-Run Elasticities of Energy Demand from Panel Data Using Shrinkage Estimators," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 15(1), pages 90-100, January.
    65. Martinez-Zarzoso, Inmaculada & Bengochea-Morancho, Aurelia, 2004. "Pooled mean group estimation of an environmental Kuznets curve for CO2," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 82(1), pages 121-126, January.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Halkos, George, 2011. "Economy - environment relationship: The case of sulphur emissions," MPRA Paper 45480, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    2. repec:eee:eneeco:v:65:y:2017:i:c:p:271-282 is not listed on IDEAS
    3. Matias Piaggio & Emilio Padilla & Carolina Roman, 2015. "The long-run relationshiop between C02 emissions and economic activity in a small open economy: Uruguay 1882-2010," Working Papers wpdea1506, Department of Applied Economics at Universitat Autonoma of Barcelona.
    4. Piaggio, Matías & Padilla, Emilio, 2012. "CO2 emissions and economic activity: Heterogeneity across countries and non-stationary series," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 46(C), pages 370-381.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Carbon Kuznets Curves; heterogeneous panels; semi parametric models; random growth; income effect; time related effect;

    JEL classification:

    • C14 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods and Methodology: General - - - Semiparametric and Nonparametric Methods: General
    • C22 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Time-Series Models; Dynamic Quantile Regressions; Dynamic Treatment Effect Models; Diffusion Processes
    • C23 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Models with Panel Data; Spatio-temporal Models
    • Q53 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Air Pollution; Water Pollution; Noise; Hazardous Waste; Solid Waste; Recycling

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:udf:wpaper:201105. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Alberto Benati). General contact details of provider: http://edirc.repec.org/data/deferit.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.