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Environmental Kuznets Curve for sulfur: evidence using GMM estimation and random coefficient panel data models


  • Halkos, George E.


The purpose of this study is to test empirically the hypothesis of the inverted U-shaped relationship between environmental damage from sulfur emissions and economic growth as expressed by GDP. Using a large database of panel data consisting of 73 OECD and non-OECD countries for 31 years (1960–1990) we apply for the first time random coefficients and Arellano-Bond Generalized Method of Moments (A–B GMM) econometric methods. Our findings indicate that the EKC hypothesis is not rejected in the case of the A–B GMM. On the other hand there is no support for an EKC in the case of using a random coefficients model. Our turning points range from $2805–$6230/c. These results are completely different compared to the results derived using the same database and fixed and random effects models.

Suggested Citation

  • Halkos, George E., 2003. "Environmental Kuznets Curve for sulfur: evidence using GMM estimation and random coefficient panel data models," Environment and Development Economics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 8(4), pages 581-601, October.
  • Handle: RePEc:cup:endeec:v:8:y:2003:i:04:p:581-601_00

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