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Environmental Kuznets Curves for CO2 : Heterogeneity Versus Homogeneity

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  • Vollebergh, H.R.J.

    (Tilburg University, Center For Economic Research)

  • Dijkgraaf, E.
  • Melenberg, B.

    (Tilburg University, Center For Economic Research)

Abstract

We explore the emissions income relationship for CO2 in OECD countries using various modelling strategies.Even for this relatively homogeneous sample, we find that the inverted-U-shaped curve is quite sensitive to the degree of heterogeneity included in the panel estimations.This finding is robust, not only across different model specifications but also across estimation techniques, including the more flexible non-parametric approach.Differences in restrictions applied in panel estimations are therefore responsible for the widely divergent findings for an inverted-U shape for CO2.Our findings suggest that allowing for enough heterogeneity is essential to prevent spurious correlation from reduced-form panel estimations.Moreover, this inverted U for CO2 is likely to exist for many, but not for all, countries.

Suggested Citation

  • Vollebergh, H.R.J. & Dijkgraaf, E. & Melenberg, B., 2005. "Environmental Kuznets Curves for CO2 : Heterogeneity Versus Homogeneity," Discussion Paper 2005-25, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research.
  • Handle: RePEc:tiu:tiucen:f0eaa75c-2345-484c-82b9-e2a3aa83027c
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Mazzanti, Massimiliano & Montini, Anna & Zoboli, Roberto, 2007. "Economic Dynamics, Emission Trends and the EKC Hypothesis New Evidence Using NAMEA and Provincial Panel Data for Italy," Climate Change Modelling and Policy Working Papers 10261, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei (FEEM).
    2. Tol, Richard S.J. & Pacala, Stephen W. & Socolow, Robert H., 2009. "Understanding Long-Term Energy Use and Carbon Dioxide Emissions in the USA," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 31(3), pages 425-445, May.
    3. Shahbaz, Muhammad & Sinha, Avik, 2018. "Environmental Kuznets Curve for CO2 Emission: A Literature Survey," MPRA Paper 86281, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 11 Apr 2018.
    4. Massimiliano Mazzanti & Antonio Musolesi, 2009. "Carbon Kuznets Curves: Long-run Structural Dynamics and Policy Events," Working Papers 2009.87, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei.
    5. Massimiliano Mazzanti & Antonio Musolesi & Roberto Zoboli, 2006. "A Bayesian Approach to the Estimation of Environmental Kuznets Curves for CO2 Emissions," Working Papers 2006.121, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei.
    6. Piaggio, Matías & Padilla, Emilio, 2012. "CO2 emissions and economic activity: Heterogeneity across countries and non-stationary series," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 46(C), pages 370-381.
    7. Matias Piaggio & Emilio Padilla & Carolina Roman, 2015. "The long-run relationship between CO2 emissions and economic activity in a small open economy: Uruguay 1882 - 2010," Documentos de Trabajo (working papers) 15-11, Instituto de Economia - IECON.
    8. Matias Piaggio & Emilio Padilla & Carolina Roman, 2015. "The long-run relationship between CO2 emissions and economic activity in a small open economy: Uruguay 1882 - 2010," Documentos de Trabajo (working papers) 15-11, Instituto de Economia - IECON.
    9. Azomahou, Theophile & Laisney, Francois & Nguyen Van, Phu, 2006. "Economic development and CO2 emissions: A nonparametric panel approach," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 90(6-7), pages 1347-1363, August.
    10. Carlos Ordás Criado, 2007. "Temporal and spatial homogeneity in air pollutants panel EKC estimations: Two nonparametric tests applied to Spanish provinces," IRENE Working Papers 07-01, IRENE Institute of Economic Research.
    11. Effiong, Ekpeno & Oisaozoje, Alex, 2016. "Let the Data Speak: Revisiting the Environmental Kuznets Curve in Africa," MPRA Paper 73163, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    12. Antonio Musolesi & Massimiliano Mazzanti & Roberto Zoboli, 2010. "A panel data heterogeneous Bayesian estimation of environmental Kuznets curves for CO2 emissions," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 42(18), pages 2275-2287.
    13. Massimiliano Mazzanti & Antonio Musolesi, 2011. "Income and time related effects in EKC," Working Papers 201105, University of Ferrara, Department of Economics.
    14. Ehsan Rasoulinezhad & Farhad Taghizadeh-Hesary, 2017. "A new evidence on the CIS’s environmental pollution-macroeoconmic variables relationship," ECONOMICS AND POLICY OF ENERGY AND THE ENVIRONMENT, FrancoAngeli Editore, vol. 2017(1-2), pages 273-293.
    15. Massimiliano Mazzanti & Anna Montini & Roberto Zoboli, 2008. "Environmental Kuznets Curves for Air Pollutant Emissions in Italy: Evidence from Environmental Accounts (NAMEA) Panel Data," Economic Systems Research, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 20(3), pages 277-301.
    16. He, Jie & Richard, Patrick, 2010. "Environmental Kuznets curve for CO2 in Canada," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 69(5), pages 1083-1093, March.
    17. Andrée, Bo Pieter Johannes & Chamorro, Andres & Spencer, Phoebe & Koomen, Eric & Dogo, Harun, 2019. "Revisiting the relation between economic growth and the environment; a global assessment of deforestation, pollution and carbon emission," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 114(C), pages 1-1.
    18. Miguel Rodríguez & Yolanda Pena-Boquete, 2013. "Mishandling carbon intensities," Working Papers 1302, Universidade de Vigo, Departamento de Economía Aplicada.
    19. Massimiliano Mazzanti & Antonio Musolesi, 2010. "Carbon Abatement Leaders and Laggards Non Parametric Analyses of Policy Oriented Kuznets Curves," Working Papers 2010.149, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei.
    20. Shahbaz, Muhammad & Jalil, Abdul & Dube, Smile, 2010. "Environmental Kuznets curve (EKC): Times series evidence from Portugal," MPRA Paper 27443, University Library of Munich, Germany.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Environmental Kuznets Curves; (Semi)parametric Estimation; Heterogeneity;

    JEL classification:

    • C33 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables - - - Models with Panel Data; Spatio-temporal Models
    • Q50 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - General
    • O50 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economywide Country Studies - - - General

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