IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/bla/brjirl/v59y2021i1p52-83.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Upstreamness, Wages and Gender: Equal Benefits for All?

Author

Listed:
  • Nicola Gagliardi
  • Benoît Mahy
  • François Rycx

Abstract

This article provides first evidence on the impact of a direct measure of firm‐level upstreamness (i.e. the steps before the production of a firm meets final demand) on workers’ wages. It also investigates whether results vary along the earnings distribution and by gender. Findings, based on unique matched employer–employee data relative to the Belgian manufacturing industry for the period 2002–2010, show that workers earn significantly higher wages when employed in more upstream firms. Yet, the gains from upstreamness are found to be very unequally shared among workers. Unconditional quantile estimates suggest that male top earners are the main beneficiaries, whereas women, irrespective of their earnings, appear to be unfairly rewarded. Quantile decompositions further show that these differences in wage premia account for a substantial part of the gender wage gap, especially at the top of the earnings distribution.

Suggested Citation

  • Nicola Gagliardi & Benoît Mahy & François Rycx, 2021. "Upstreamness, Wages and Gender: Equal Benefits for All?," British Journal of Industrial Relations, London School of Economics, vol. 59(1), pages 52-83, March.
  • Handle: RePEc:bla:brjirl:v:59:y:2021:i:1:p:52-83
    DOI: 10.1111/bjir.12486
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://doi.org/10.1111/bjir.12486
    Download Restriction: no

    File URL: https://libkey.io/10.1111/bjir.12486?utm_source=ideas
    LibKey link: if access is restricted and if your library uses this service, LibKey will redirect you to where you can use your library subscription to access this item
    ---><---

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Pol Antràs & Davin Chor, 2013. "Organizing the Global Value Chain," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 81(6), pages 2127-2204, November.
    2. Laura Alfaro & Pol Antràs & Davin Chor & Paola Conconi, 2019. "Internalizing Global Value Chains: A Firm-Level Analysis," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 127(2), pages 508-559.
    3. Baumgarten, Daniel & Geishecker, Ingo & Görg, Holger, 2013. "Offshoring, tasks, and the skill-wage pattern," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 61(C), pages 132-152.
    4. Chen, Bo, 2017. "Upstreamness, exports, and wage inequality: Evidence from Chinese manufacturing data," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 48(C), pages 66-74.
    5. Sandra E. Black & Elizabeth Brainerd, 2004. "Importing Equality? The Impact of Globalization on Gender Discrimination," ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 57(4), pages 540-559, July.
    6. Alessia Matano & Paolo Naticchioni, 2017. "The Extent of Rent Sharing along the Wage Distribution," British Journal of Industrial Relations, London School of Economics, vol. 55(4), pages 751-777, December.
    7. Pol Antras & Davin Chor & Thibault Fally & Russell Hillberry, 2012. "Measuring the Upstreamness of Production and Trade Flows," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 102(3), pages 412-416, May.
    8. Bøler, Esther Ann & Javorcik, Beata & Ulltveit-Moe, Karen Helene, 2015. "Globalization: a woman’s best friend? Exporters andthe gender wage gap," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 62604, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
    9. Annette Bernhardt & Rosemary Batt & Susan Houseman & Eileen Appelbaum, 2016. "Working Paper: Domestic Outsourcing in the United States: A Research Agenda to Assess Trends and Effects on Job Quality," CEPR Reports and Issue Briefs 2016-03, Center for Economic and Policy Research (CEPR).
    10. Ingo Geishecker & Holger Görg, 2013. "Services offshoring and wages: evidence from micro data," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 65(1), pages 124-146, January.
    11. Garnero, Andrea & Kampelmann, Stephan & Rycx, François, 2013. "Part-time Work, Wages and Productivity: Evidence from Belgian Matched Panel Data," IZA Discussion Papers 7789, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    12. Michael Rusinek & François Rycx, 2013. "Rent-Sharing under Different Bargaining Regimes: Evidence from Linked Employer–Employee Data," British Journal of Industrial Relations, London School of Economics, vol. 51(1), pages 28-58, March.
    13. Parente Paulo M.D.C. & Santos Silva João M.C., 2016. "Quantile Regression with Clustered Data," Journal of Econometric Methods, De Gruyter, vol. 5(1), pages 1-15, January.
    14. Fortin, Nicole & Lemieux, Thomas & Firpo, Sergio, 2011. "Decomposition Methods in Economics," Handbook of Labor Economics, in: O. Ashenfelter & D. Card (ed.), Handbook of Labor Economics, edition 1, volume 4, chapter 1, pages 1-102, Elsevier.
    15. Philip Du Caju & François Rycx & Ilan Tojerow, 2011. "Inter‐Industry Wage Differentials: How Much Does Rent Sharing Matter?," Manchester School, University of Manchester, vol. 79(4), pages 691-717, July.
    16. Francine D. Blau & Lawrence M. Kahn, 2017. "The Gender Wage Gap: Extent, Trends, and Explanations," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 55(3), pages 789-865, September.
    17. Dobbelaere, Sabien & Mairesse, Jacques, 2018. "Comparing micro-evidence on rent sharing from two different econometric models," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 52(C), pages 18-26.
    18. Oaxaca, Ronald, 1973. "Male-Female Wage Differentials in Urban Labor Markets," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 14(3), pages 693-709, October.
    19. Paul Redmond & Seamus Mcguinness, 2019. "The Gender Wage Gap in Europe: Job Preferences, Gender Convergence and Distributional Effects," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 81(3), pages 564-587, June.
    20. David Card & Ana Rute Cardoso & Patrick Kline, 2016. "Bargaining, Sorting, and the Gender Wage Gap: Quantifying the Impact of Firms on the Relative Pay of Women," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 131(2), pages 633-686.
    21. Lin Xiu & Morley Gunderson, 2013. "Performance Pay in China: Gender Aspects," British Journal of Industrial Relations, London School of Economics, vol. 51(1), pages 124-147, March.
    22. Ilan Tojerow & François Rycx, 2002. "Inter-industry wage differentials and the gender wage gap in Belgium," Brussels Economic Review, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles, vol. 45(2), pages 119-141.
    23. Matthias Busse & Christian Spielmann, 2006. "Gender Inequality and Trade," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 14(3), pages 362-379, August.
    24. David Hummels & Rasmus J?rgensen & Jakob Munch & Chong Xiang, 2014. "The Wage Effects of Offshoring: Evidence from Danish Matched Worker-Firm Data," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 104(6), pages 1597-1629, June.
    25. A. Colin Cameron & Jonah B. Gelbach & Douglas L. Miller, 2008. "Bootstrap-Based Improvements for Inference with Clustered Errors," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 90(3), pages 414-427, August.
    26. Greenwald, Bruce C., 1983. "A general analysis of bias in the estimated standard errors of least squares coefficients," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 22(3), pages 323-338, August.
    27. Remco H. Oostendorp, 2009. "Globalization and the Gender Wage Gap," The World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 23(1), pages 141-161, January.
    28. Alan S. Blinder, 1973. "Wage Discrimination: Reduced Form and Structural Estimates," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 8(4), pages 436-455.
    29. José Mata & José A. F. Machado, 2005. "Counterfactual decomposition of changes in wage distributions using quantile regression," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 20(4), pages 445-465.
    30. Mario Macis & Fabiano Schivardi, 2016. "Exports and Wages: Rent Sharing, Workforce Composition, or Returns to Skills?," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 34(4), pages 945-978.
    31. Sarra Ben Yahmed, 2012. "Gender Wage Gaps across Skills and Trade Openness," Working Papers halshs-00793559, HAL.
    32. Danièle Meulders & Sile Padraigin O'Dorchai, 2004. "The role of welfare state typologies in analysing motherhood," ULB Institutional Repository 2013/8561, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
    33. Annette Bernhardt & Rosemary L. Batt & Susan Houseman & Eileen Appelbaum, 2016. "Domestic Outsourcing in the United States: A Research Agenda to Assess Trends and Effects on Job Quality," Upjohn Working Papers 16-253, W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research.
    34. François Rycx, 2002. "Inter-industry wage differentials: evidence from Belgium in a cross-national perspective," ULB Institutional Repository 2013/791, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
    35. McGee, Andrew & McGee, Peter & Pan, Jessica, 2015. "Performance pay, competitiveness, and the gender wage gap: Evidence from the United States," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 128(C), pages 35-38.
    36. Melly, Blaise, 2005. "Decomposition of differences in distribution using quantile regression," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 12(4), pages 577-590, August.
    37. White, Halbert, 1980. "A Heteroskedasticity-Consistent Covariance Matrix Estimator and a Direct Test for Heteroskedasticity," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 48(4), pages 817-838, May.
    38. E. Dhyne & C. Duprez, 2015. "Has the crisis altered the Belgian economy’s DNA ?," Economic Review, National Bank of Belgium, issue ii, pages 31-43, september.
    39. Bernd Fitzenberger & Claudia Kurz, 2003. "New insights on earnings trends across skill groups and industries in West Germany," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 28(3), pages 479-514, July.
    40. Rungi, Armando & Del Prete, Davide, 2018. "The smile curve at the firm level: Where value is added along supply chains," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 164(C), pages 38-42.
    41. Ju, Jiandong & Yu, Xinding, 2015. "Productivity, profitability, production and export structures along the value chain in China," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 43(1), pages 33-54.
    42. Sergio Firpo & Nicole M. Fortin & Thomas Lemieux, 2009. "Unconditional Quantile Regressions," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 77(3), pages 953-973, May.
    43. Juhn, Chinhui & Ujhelyi, Gergely & Villegas-Sanchez, Carolina, 2014. "Men, women, and machines: How trade impacts gender inequality," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 106(C), pages 179-193.
    44. Sheba Tejani & William Milberg, 2016. "Global Defeminization? Industrial Upgrading and Manufacturing Employment in Developing Countries," Feminist Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 22(2), pages 24-54, April.
    45. Sarra Ben Yahmed, 2012. "Gender Wage Gaps across Skills and Trade Openness," AMSE Working Papers 1232, Aix-Marseille School of Economics, France, revised Nov 2012.
    46. François Rycx & Ilan Tojerow, 2004. "Rent-sharing and the gender wage gap in Belgium," ULB Institutional Repository 2013/785, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
    47. Glenn Magerman & Emmanuel Dhyne & Stela Rubínova, 2015. "The Belgian production network 2002-2012," Working Paper Research 288, National Bank of Belgium.
    48. Claudia Goldin, 2014. "A Grand Gender Convergence: Its Last Chapter," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 104(4), pages 1091-1119, April.
    49. Jan Ours & Lenny Stoeldraijer, 2011. "Age, Wage and Productivity in Dutch Manufacturing," De Economist, Springer, vol. 159(2), pages 113-137, June.
    50. Bøler, Esther Ann & Javorcik, Beata & Ulltveit-Moe, Karen Helene, 2018. "Working across time zones: Exporters and the gender wage gap," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 111(C), pages 122-133.
    51. Sabina Szymczak & Aleksandra Parteka & Joanna Wolszczak-Derlacz, 2019. "Position In Global Value Chains:The Impact On Wages In Central And Eastern European Countries," GUT FME Working Paper Series A 53, Faculty of Management and Economics, Gdansk University of Technology.
    52. Lucian Arye Bebchuk & Jesse M. Fried, 2003. "Executive Compensation as an Agency Problem," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 17(3), pages 71-92, Summer.
    53. Ram Mudambi, 2008. "Location, control and innovation in knowledge-intensive industries," Journal of Economic Geography, Oxford University Press, vol. 8(5), pages 699-725, September.
    54. John Humphrey & Hubert Schmitz, 2002. "How does insertion in global value chains affect upgrading in industrial clusters?," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 36(9), pages 1017-1027.
    55. Javier Lopez Gonzalez & Przemyslaw Kowalski & Pascal Achard, 2015. "Trade, global value chains and wage-income inequality," OECD Trade Policy Papers 182, OECD Publishing.
    56. Ilan Tojerow & François Rycx, 2002. "Inter-industry wage differentials and the gender wage gap in Belgium," Brussels Economic Review, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles, vol. 45(2), pages 119-141.
    57. Joan Daouli & Michael Demoussis & Nicholas Giannakopoulos & Ioannis Laliotis, 2013. "Firm-Level Collective Bargaining and Wages in G reece: A Quantile Decomposition Analysis," British Journal of Industrial Relations, London School of Economics, vol. 51(1), pages 80-103, March.
    58. Koenker, Roger W & Bassett, Gilbert, Jr, 1978. "Regression Quantiles," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 46(1), pages 33-50, January.
    59. François Rycx & Andrea Garnero & Stephan Kampelmann, 2014. "part-time work, Wages and Productivity :Evidence from Matched panel data," ULB Institutional Repository 2013/245672, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
    60. Benoît Mahy & François Rycx & Guillaume Vermeylen & Mélanie Volral, 2018. "Productivity, wages and profits: Does firms’ position in the value chain matter?," Working Paper Research 358, National Bank of Belgium.
    61. Stephanie BARRIENTOS & Gary GEREFFI & Arianna ROSSI, 2011. "Economic and social upgrading in global production networks: A new paradigm for a changing world," International Labour Review, International Labour Organization, vol. 150(3-4), pages 319-340, December.
    62. Andrea Garnero & Stephan Kampelmann & François Rycx, 2014. "Part-Time Work, Wages, and Productivity," ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 67(3), pages 926-954, July.
    63. Thomas Farole, 2016. "Do global value chains create jobs?," IZA World of Labor, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA), pages 291-291, September.
    64. Shen, Leilei & Silva, Peri, 2018. "Value-added exports and U.S. local labor markets: Does China really matter?," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 101(C), pages 479-504.
    65. Salido Marcos, Joaquín & Bellhouse, Tom, 2016. "Economic and Social Upgrading: Definitions, connections and exploring means of measurement," Sede Subregional de la CEPAL en México (Estudios e Investigaciones) 40096, Naciones Unidas Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe (CEPAL).
    66. Bebchuk, Lucian A. & Fried, Jesse M., 2003. "Executive Compensation as an Agency Problem," Berkeley Olin Program in Law & Economics, Working Paper Series qt81q3136r, Berkeley Olin Program in Law & Economics.
    67. Rossi, Arianna, 2013. "Does Economic Upgrading Lead to Social Upgrading in Global Production Networks? Evidence from Morocco," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 46(C), pages 223-233.
    68. François Rycx & Ilan Tojerow & Robert Plasman, 2004. "Rent sharing and the gender wage gap in Belgium," ULB Institutional Repository 2013/785, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
    69. Moulton, Brent R, 1990. "An Illustration of a Pitfall in Estimating the Effects of Aggregate Variables on Micro Unit," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 72(2), pages 334-338, May.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Nicola Gagliardi & Benoît Mahy & François Rycx, 2019. "Does firms’ position in global value chains matter for workers’ wages?. An overview with a gender perspective," Reflets et perspectives de la vie économique, De Boeck Université, vol. 0(4), pages 55-62.
    2. Valentine Fays & Benoit Mahy & François Rycx, 2021. "Wage Differences According to Workers’ Origin: The Role of Working More Upstream in GVCs," Working Papers CEB 21-016, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
    3. V. Jacobs & F. Rycx & M. Volral, 2022. "Wage Effects of Educational Mismatch According to Workers’ Origin: The Role of Demographics and Firm Characteristics," De Economist, Springer, vol. 170(4), pages 459-501, November.
    4. Jacobs, Valentine & Rycx, François & Volral, Mélanie, 2022. "Does Over-Education Raise Productivity and Wages Equally? The Moderating Role of Workers' Origin and Immigrants' Background," IZA Discussion Papers 15074, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    5. Valentine Jacobs, 2021. "Wage Effects of Educational Mismatch According to Workers’ Origin: The Role of Demographics and Firm Characteristics," DULBEA Working Papers 23562, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
    6. Jonathan Morris & Jean Jenkins & Jimmy Donaghey, 2021. "Uneven Development, Uneven Response: The Relentless Search for Meaningful Regulation of GVCs," British Journal of Industrial Relations, London School of Economics, vol. 59(1), pages 3-24, March.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Nicola Gagliardi & Benoît Mahy & François Rycx, 2018. "Upstreamness, social upgrading and gender: Equal benefits for all?," Working Paper Research 359, National Bank of Belgium.
    2. Valentine Fays & Benoit Mahy & François Rycx, 2021. "Wage Differences According to Workers’ Origin: The Role of Working More Upstream in GVCs," Working Papers CEB 21-016, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
    3. Nicola Gagliardi & Benoît Mahy & François Rycx, 2019. "Does firms’ position in global value chains matter for workers’ wages?. An overview with a gender perspective," Reflets et perspectives de la vie économique, De Boeck Université, vol. 0(4), pages 55-62.
    4. Benoît Mahy & François Rycx & Guillaume Vermeylen & Mélanie Volral, 2022. "Productivity and wage effects of firm‐level upstreamness: Evidence from Belgian linked panel data," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 45(7), pages 2222-2250, July.
    5. Nicola Gagliardi & Benoît Mahy & François Rycx, 2020. "Trade, GVCs, and wage inequality: Theoretical and empirical insights," Reflets et perspectives de la vie économique, De Boeck Université, vol. 0(2), pages 115-134.
    6. Kaya Ezgi, 2021. "Gender wage gap across the distribution: What is the role of within- and between-firm effects?," IZA Journal of Development and Migration, Sciendo & Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit GmbH (IZA), vol. 12(1), pages 1-49, January.
    7. Benoît Mahy & François Rycx & Guillaume Vermeylen & Mélanie Volral, 2018. "Productivity, wages and profits: Does firms’ position in the value chain matter?," Working Paper Research 358, National Bank of Belgium.
    8. Collischon Matthias, 2019. "Is There a Glass Ceiling over Germany?," German Economic Review, De Gruyter, vol. 20(4), pages 329-359, December.
    9. Robert Plasman & François Rycx & Ilan Tojerow, 2006. "Industry wage differentials, unobserved ability, and rent-sharing: evidence from matched employer-employee, 1992-2005," DULBEA Working Papers 06-14.RS, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
    10. Nikulin, Dagmara & Wolszczak-Derlacz, Joanna, 2022. "GVC involvement and the gender wage gap: Micro-evidence on European countries," Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, Elsevier, vol. 63(C), pages 268-282.
    11. Priit Vahter & Jaan Masso, 2019. "The contribution of multinationals to wage inequality: foreign ownership and the gender pay gap," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 155(1), pages 105-148, February.
    12. Guy Navon & Ilan Tojerow, 2013. "Does Rent-sharing Profit Female and Male Workers? Evidence from Israeli Matched Employer–Employee Data," LABOUR, CEIS, vol. 27(3), pages 331-349, September.
    13. Robert Plasman & François Rycx & Ilan Tojerow, 2006. "Industry wage differentials, unobserved ability, and rent-sharing : Evidence from matched worker-firm data, 1995-2002," Working Paper Research 90, National Bank of Belgium.
    14. Dagmara Nikulin & Joanna Wolszczak-Derlacz, 2019. "Gvc Involvement And The Gender Wage Gap: Micro - Evidence For European Countries," GUT FME Working Paper Series A 57, Faculty of Management and Economics, Gdansk University of Technology.
    15. Joanna Tyrowicz & Lucas van der Velde, 2017. "When the opportunity knocks: large structural shocks and gender wage gaps," GRAPE Working Papers 2, GRAPE Group for Research in Applied Economics.
    16. Aleksandra Parteka & Joanna Wolszczak-Derlacz, 2020. "Wage response to global production links: evidence for workers from 28 European countries (2005–2014)," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 156(4), pages 769-801, November.
    17. Katie Meara & Francesco Pastore & Allan Webster, 2020. "The gender pay gap in the USA: a matching study," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 33(1), pages 271-305, January.
    18. Sonja C. Kassenboehmer & Mathias G. Sinning, 2014. "Distributional Changes in the Gender Wage Gap," ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 67(2), pages 335-361, April.
    19. Domenico Depalo & Raffaela Giordano & Evangelia Papapetrou, 2015. "Public–private wage differentials in euro-area countries: evidence from quantile decomposition analysis," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 49(3), pages 985-1015, November.
    20. Ana Fernandes & Martin Huber & Giannina Vaccaro, 2021. "Gender differences in wage expectations," PLOS ONE, Public Library of Science, vol. 16(6), pages 1-24, June.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • F61 - International Economics - - Economic Impacts of Globalization - - - Microeconomic Impacts
    • F66 - International Economics - - Economic Impacts of Globalization - - - Labor
    • J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination
    • J31 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs - - - Wage Level and Structure; Wage Differentials

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:bla:brjirl:v:59:y:2021:i:1:p:52-83. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/lsepsuk.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Wiley Content Delivery (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/lsepsuk.html .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.