IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/pia/wpaper/78-2010.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

The Impact of Crises on Youth Unemployment of Russian Regions: An Empirical Analysis

Author

Listed:
  • Olga Demidova
  • Marcello Signorelli

Abstract

The main purpose of this paper is to estimate the influence of the 1998 and 2008 crises on the youth unemployment rates (age class 20-29) in Russian regions. The investigation is founded on the panel data for 78 Russian regions during 1997–2008 provided by ROSSTAT (the main Russian State statistical organization). We compare the level and dynamics of the youth unemployment in various Russian regions and try to solve three main questions. Are there any special features of the youth unemployment in comparison with overall unemployment? How the 1998 crisis did change - and how the 2008 crisis is going to change - the youth unemployment dynamics? What can we learn from the impact of 1998 crisis and what is the main difference with the impact of the 2008 crisis? With the help of the obtained results we define some preliminary policy suggestion.

Suggested Citation

  • Olga Demidova & Marcello Signorelli, 2010. "The Impact of Crises on Youth Unemployment of Russian Regions: An Empirical Analysis," Quaderni del Dipartimento di Economia, Finanza e Statistica 78/2010, Università di Perugia, Dipartimento Economia.
  • Handle: RePEc:pia:wpaper:78/2010
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.ec.unipg.it/DEFS/uploads/qd78web.pdf
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Marelli, Enrico, 2004. "Evolution of employment structures and regional specialisation in the EU," Economic Systems, Elsevier, vol. 28(1), pages 35-59, March.
    2. Aragon, Y. & Haughton, D. & Haughton, J. & Leconte, E. & Malin, E. & Ruiz-Gazen, A. & Thomas-Agnan. C., 1999. "Explaining the Pattern of Regional Unemployment: the Case of the Midi-Pyrenees Region," Papers 99.519, Toulouse - GREMAQ.
    3. repec:lan:wpaper:1023 is not listed on IDEAS
    4. John M. Abowd & Francis Kramarz & Thomas Lemieux & David N. Margolis, 2000. "Minimum Wages and Youth Employment in France and the United States," NBER Chapters, in: Youth Employment and Joblessness in Advanced Countries, pages 427-472, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    5. David Neumark & William Wascher, 1999. "A Cross-National Analysis of the Effects of Minimum Wages on Youth Employment," NBER Working Papers 7299, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    6. J. Paul Elhorst, 2003. "The Mystery of Regional Unemployment Differentials: Theoretical and Empirical Explanations," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 17(5), pages 709-748, December.
    7. Linz, Susan J., 2004. "Motivating Russian workers: analysis of age and gender differences," Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics (formerly The Journal of Socio-Economics), Elsevier, vol. 33(3), pages 261-289, July.
    8. Huber, Peter, 2004. "Intra-national labor market adjustment in the candidate countries," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(2), pages 248-264, June.
    9. Niall O'Higgins, 2005. "Trends in the Youth Labour Market in Developing and Transition Countries," Labor and Demography 0507002, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    10. Bart Cockx & Matteo Picchio, 2012. "Are Short-lived Jobs Stepping Stones to Long-Lasting Jobs?," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 74(5), pages 646-675, October.
    11. Marelli, Enrico, 1999. "Convergence and asymmetries in the employment dynamics of the European regions," ERSA conference papers ersa99pa120, European Regional Science Association.
    12. Andrew Newell & Francesco Pastore, 2006. "Regional Unemployment and Industrial Restructuring in Poland," Eastern European Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 44(3), pages 5-28, May.
    13. Andrea Bassanini & Romain Duval, 2006. "Employment Patterns in OECD Countries: Reassessing the Role of Policies and Institutions," OECD Economics Department Working Papers 486, OECD Publishing.
    14. Alison L. Booth & Marco Francesconi & Jeff Frank, 2002. "Temporary Jobs: Stepping Stones Or Dead Ends?," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 112(480), pages 189-213, June.
    15. J Taylor & A N Nguyen, 2003. "Transition from school to first job: the influence of educational attainment," Working Papers 540112, Lancaster University Management School, Economics Department.
    16. Cristiano Perugini & Marcello Signorelli, 2004. "Employment Performance and Convergence in the European Countries and Regions," European Journal of Comparative Economics, Cattaneo University (LIUC), vol. 1(2), pages 243-278, December.
    17. Linz, Susan J. & Semykina, Anastasia, 2008. "How do workers fare during transition? Perceptions of job insecurity among Russian workers, 1995-2004," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 15(3), pages 442-458, June.
    18. Enrico Marelli, 2006. "Regional Employment Dynamics in the EU: Structural Outlook, Co-Movements, Clusters and Common Shocks," AIEL Series in Labour Economics, in: Floro Ernesto Caroleo & Sergio Destefanis (ed.), The European Labour Market. Regional Dimensions, edition 1, chapter 4, pages 89-121, AIEL - Associazione Italiana Economisti del Lavoro.
    19. Alfonso ARPAIA & Nicola CURCI, "undated". "EU labour market behaviour during the Great Recession," Working Papers wp2010-6, Department of the Treasury, Ministry of the Economy and of Finance.
    20. Philippe Aghion & Olivier J. Blanchard, 1994. "On the Speed of Transition in Central Europe," NBER Chapters, in: NBER Macroeconomics Annual 1994, Volume 9, pages 283-330, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    21. Kornai, Janos, 1992. "The Socialist System: The Political Economy of Communism," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780198287766.
    22. Anna Maria Ferragina & Francesco Pastore, 2008. "Mind The Gap: Unemployment In The New Eu Regions," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 22(1), pages 73-113, February.
    23. Niall O'Higgins, 1997. "The challenge of youth unemployment," International Social Security Review, John Wiley & Sons, vol. 50(4), pages 63-93, October.
    24. Floro Ernesto Caroleo – Gianluigi Coppola & Gianluigi Coppola, 2005. "The Impact of the Institutions on Regional Unemployment Disparities," CELPE Discussion Papers 98, CELPE - Centre of Labour Economics and Economic Policy, University of Salerno, Italy.
    25. Boeri, Tito, 2000. "Structural Change, Welfare Systems, and Labour Reallocation: Lessons from the Transition of Formerly Planned Economies," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780198293651.
    26. Hertz Tom & Jayasundera Tamara & Piraino Patrizio & Selcuk Sibel & Smith Nicole & Verashchagina Alina, 2008. "The Inheritance of Educational Inequality: International Comparisons and Fifty-Year Trends," The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy, De Gruyter, vol. 7(2), pages 1-48, January.
    27. Floro Ernesto Caroleo & Francesco Pastore, 2007. "The Youth Experience Gap: Explaining Differences across EU Countries," Quaderni del Dipartimento di Economia, Finanza e Statistica 41/2007, Università di Perugia, Dipartimento Economia.
    28. Anna Maria Ferragina & Francesco Pastore, 2006. "Regional Unemployment in the OST Literature," AIEL Series in Labour Economics, in: Floro Ernesto Caroleo & Sergio Destefanis (ed.), The European Labour Market. Regional Dimensions, edition 1, chapter 3, pages 33-87, AIEL - Associazione Italiana Economisti del Lavoro.
    29. Olivier Jean Blanchard & Lawrence F. Katz, 1992. "Regional Evolutions," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 23(1), pages 1-76.
    30. Alessandra Righi & Dario Sciulli, 2009. "The Timing of the School-to-Permanent Work Transition: a Comparison across Ten European Countries," Quaderni del Dipartimento di Economia, Finanza e Statistica 65/2009, Università di Perugia, Dipartimento Economia.
    31. O'Higgins, Niall, 2001. "Youth unemployment and employment policy: a global perspective," MPRA Paper 23698, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    32. Rees, Albert, 1986. "An Essay on Youth Joblessness," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 24(2), pages 613-628, June.
    33. repec:lan:wpaper:4772 is not listed on IDEAS
    34. Matteo Picchio, 2008. "Temporary Contracts and Transitions to Stable Jobs in Italy," LABOUR, CEIS, vol. 22(s1), pages 147-174, June.
    35. Gianna Barbieri & Paolo Sestito, 2008. "Temporary Workers in Italy: Who Are They and Where They End Up," LABOUR, CEIS, vol. 22(1), pages 127-166, March.
    36. Boeri, Tito & Scarpetta, Stefano, 1996. "Regional mismatch and the transition to a market economy," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 3(3), pages 233-254, October.
    37. Bell, David N.F. & Blanchflower, David G., 2009. "What Should Be Done about Rising Unemployment in the UK?," IZA Discussion Papers 4040, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    38. Paul Ryan, 2001. "The School-to-Work Transition: A Cross-National Perspective: Corrigendum," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 39(3), pages 767-767, September.
    39. Vera Gács & Peter Huber, 2005. "Quantity adjustments in the regional labour markets of EU candidate countries," Papers in Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 84(4), pages 553-574, November.
    40. Cristiano Perugini & Fabrizio Pompei & Marcello Signorelli, 2008. "FDI, R&D and human capital in Central and Eastern European countries," Post-Communist Economies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 20(3), pages 317-345.
    41. Glenda Quintini & Sébastien Martin, 2006. "Starting Well or Losing their Way?: The Position of Youth in the Labour Market in OECD Countries," OECD Social, Employment and Migration Working Papers 39, OECD Publishing.
    42. Misbah Tanveer Choudhry & Enrico Marelli & Marcello Signorelli, 2010. "The Impact of Financial Crises on Youth Unemployment Rate," Quaderni del Dipartimento di Economia, Finanza e Statistica 79/2010, Università di Perugia, Dipartimento Economia.
    43. Fidrmuc, Jan, 2004. "Migration and regional adjustment to asymmetric shocks in transition economies," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(2), pages 230-247, June.
    44. repec:lan:wpaper:4470 is not listed on IDEAS
    45. Andrea Bassanini & Romain Duval, 2009. "Unemployment, institutions, and reform complementarities: re-assessing the aggregate evidence for OECD countries," Oxford Review of Economic Policy, Oxford University Press, vol. 25(1), pages 40-59, Spring.
    46. Shilov, Andrey & Möller, Joachim, 2009. "The wage curve in Russia, 1995-2005," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 102(2), pages 90-92, February.
    47. Peter Huber, 2007. "Regional Labour Market Developments in Transition: A Survey of the Empirical Literature," European Journal of Comparative Economics, Cattaneo University (LIUC), vol. 4(2), pages 263-298, September.
    48. Floro Ernesto Caroleo & Francesco Pastore, 2009. "Le cause del(l') (in)successo lavorativo dei giovani," Economia & lavoro, Carocci editore, issue 3, pages 107-107.
    49. Cristiano Perugini & Marcello Signorelli, 2010. "Youth labour market performance in European regions," Economic Change and Restructuring, Springer, vol. 43(2), pages 151-185, May.
    50. repec:lan:wpaper:4343 is not listed on IDEAS
    51. Marcello Signorelli, 2017. "Youth unemployment in transition economies," IZA World of Labor, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA), pages 401-401, November.
    52. Peter Huber, 2003. "Quantity Adjustments in Candidate Countries Regional Labour Markets," ERSA conference papers ersa03p239, European Regional Science Association.
    53. Checchi,Daniele, 2008. "The Economics of Education," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521066464, May.
    54. Fabian Bornhorst & Simon Commander, 2006. "Regional unemployment and its persistence in transition countries," The Economics of Transition, The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, vol. 14(2), pages 269-288, April.
    55. Robert Shimer, 2001. "The Impact of Young Workers on the Aggregate Labor Market," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 116(3), pages 969-1007.
    56. Enrico Marelli, 2007. "Specialisation and Convergence in European Regions," European Journal of Comparative Economics, Cattaneo University (LIUC), vol. 4(2), pages 149-178, September.
    57. Sanders Korenman & David Neumark, 2000. "Cohort Crowding and Youth Labor Markets (A Cross-National Analysis)," NBER Chapters, in: Youth Employment and Joblessness in Advanced Countries, pages 57-106, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    58. Cristiano Perugini & Marcello Signorelli, 2007. "Labour Market Performance Differentials and Dynamics in EU-15 Countries and Regions," European Journal of Comparative Economics, Cattaneo University (LIUC), vol. 4(2), pages 209-262, September.
    59. M J Andrews & S Bradley & D Scott, 2001. "The School-to-Work Transition, Skill Preferences and Matching," The School of Economics Discussion Paper Series 0102, Economics, The University of Manchester.
    60. Damian F. Hannan & Emer Smyth & Selina McCoy, 1999. "A Comparative Analysis of Transitions from Education to Work in Europe (CATEWE) Volume 1 / 1. A Conceptual Framework 2. Demographic and Economic Changes," Papers WP118(a), Economic and Social Research Institute (ESRI).
    61. Paul Ryan, 2001. "The School-to-Work Transition: A Cross-National Perspective," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 39(1), pages 34-92, March.
    62. János Kornai, 2006. "Velká transformace střední a východní Evropy: úspěch a zklamání [The great transformation of central and eastern Europe: success and disappointment]," Politická ekonomie, Prague University of Economics and Business, vol. 2006(4), pages 435-466.
    63. Heckman, James J & Borjas, George J, 1980. "Does Unemployment Cause Future Unemployment? Definitions, Questions and Answers from a Continuous Time Model of Heterogeneity and State Dependence," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 47(187), pages 247-283, August.
    64. Verick, Sher, 2009. "Who Is Hit Hardest during a Financial Crisis? The Vulnerability of Young Men and Women to Unemployment in an Economic Downturn," IZA Discussion Papers 4359, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    65. Simonetta Longhi & Peter Nijkamp & Iulia Traistaru, 2005. "Is Sectoral Diversification a Solution to Unemployment? Evidence from EU Regions#," Kyklos, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 58(4), pages 591-610, November.
    66. Mauro, Luciano & Carmeci, Gaetano, 2003. "Long run growth and investment in education: Does unemployment matter?," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 25(1), pages 123-137, March.
    67. Marcello Signorelli, 2005. "Growth and employment: comparative performance, convergences and co-movements," Quaderni del Dipartimento di Economia, Finanza e Statistica 08/2005, Università di Perugia, Dipartimento Economia.
    68. Stefano Iacus & Giuseppe Porro, 2007. "School grades and students' achievement: how to identify grading standards and measure their effects," UNIMI - Research Papers in Economics, Business, and Statistics unimi-1061, Universitá degli Studi di Milano.
    69. Vassilis Monastiriotis, 2003. "A panel of regional indicators of labour market flexibility: the UK, 1979-1998," Royal Holloway, University of London: Discussion Papers in Economics 03/1, Department of Economics, Royal Holloway University of London, revised Dec 2003.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Mirella Damiani & Fabrizio Pompei & Andrea Ricci, 2011. "Temporary job protection and productivity growth in EU economies," Quaderni del Dipartimento di Economia, Finanza e Statistica 87/2011, Università di Perugia, Dipartimento Economia.
    2. Davide Castellani & Fabio Pieri, 2011. "Foreign Investments and Productivity Evidence from European Regions," Quaderni del Dipartimento di Economia, Finanza e Statistica 83/2011, Università di Perugia, Dipartimento Economia.
    3. Watson, Philip & Deller, Steven, 2017. "Economic diversity, unemployment and the Great Recession," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 64(C), pages 1-11.
    4. Silvia Micheli, 2010. "Learning Curve and Wind Power," Quaderni del Dipartimento di Economia, Finanza e Statistica 81/2010, Università di Perugia, Dipartimento Economia.
    5. Enrico Marelli & Roberto Patuelli & Marcello Signorelli, 2012. "Regional unemployment in the EU before and after the global crisis," Post-Communist Economies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 24(2), pages 155-175, January.
    6. Stefano Herzel & Marco Nicolosi & Cătălin Stărică, 2012. "The cost of sustainability in optimal portfolio decisions," The European Journal of Finance, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 18(3-4), pages 333-349, May.
    7. Dario Sciulli & Marcello Signorelli, 2010. "University-to-work transitions: the case of Perugia," Quaderni del Dipartimento di Economia, Finanza e Statistica 77/2010, Università di Perugia, Dipartimento Economia.
    8. Ahmed Salama & Judit Oláh, 2019. "Key Factors Affecting Unemployment In The Arab World," Central European Journal of Labour Law and Personnel Management, Labour Law Association, vol. 2(2).
    9. Misbah Tanveer Choudhry & Enrico Marelli & Marcello Signorelli, 2012. "Youth unemployment rate and impact of financial crises," International Journal of Manpower, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 33(1), pages 76-95, March.
    10. Lyashok, V. & Roshchin, S., 2017. "Young and Older Workers in the Russian Labor Market: Are They Competitors?," Journal of the New Economic Association, New Economic Association, vol. 33(1), pages 117-140.
    11. Francesco Venturini, 2011. "Product variety, product quality, and evidence of Schumpeterian endogenous growth: a note," Quaderni del Dipartimento di Economia, Finanza e Statistica 93/2011, Università di Perugia, Dipartimento Economia.
    12. Demidova, Olga & Marelli, Enrico & Signorelli, Marcello, 2015. "Youth labour market performances in the Russian and Italian regions," Economic Systems, Elsevier, vol. 39(1), pages 43-58.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Cristiano Perugini & Marcello Signorelli, 2010. "Youth labour market performance in European regions," Economic Change and Restructuring, Springer, vol. 43(2), pages 151-185, May.
    2. Dario Sciulli & Marcello Signorelli, 2010. "University-to-work transitions: the case of Perugia," Quaderni del Dipartimento di Economia, Finanza e Statistica 77/2010, Università di Perugia, Dipartimento Economia.
    3. Misbah Tanveer Choudhry & Enrico Marelli & Marcello Signorelli, 2012. "Youth unemployment rate and impact of financial crises," International Journal of Manpower, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 33(1), pages 76-95, March.
    4. Marcello Signorelli & Enrico Marelli, 2007. "Institutional change, regional features and aggregate performance in eight EU’s transition countries," Quaderni del Dipartimento di Economia, Finanza e Statistica 37/2007, Università di Perugia, Dipartimento Economia.
    5. Enrico Marelli & Misbah T. Choudhry & Marcello Signorelli, 2013. "Youth and total unemployment rate: the impact of policies and institutions," Rivista Internazionale di Scienze Sociali, Vita e Pensiero, Pubblicazioni dell'Universita' Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, vol. 121(1), pages 63-86.
    6. Peter Huber, 2009. "Regional Labour Market Disparities in an Enlarged European Union," Palgrave Macmillan Books, in: Paul Blokker & Bruno Dallago (ed.), Regional Diversity and Local Development in the New Member States, chapter 5, pages 122-165, Palgrave Macmillan.
    7. Peter Huber, 2008. "Regional Labour Market Disparities in an Enlarged European Union," WIFO Working Papers 309, WIFO.
    8. Enrico Marelli & Roberto Patuelli & Marcello Signorelli, 2012. "Regional unemployment in the EU before and after the global crisis," Post-Communist Economies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 24(2), pages 155-175, January.
    9. Anna Maria Ferragina & Francesco Pastore, 2008. "Mind The Gap: Unemployment In The New Eu Regions," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 22(1), pages 73-113, February.
    10. Giovanni S.F. Bruno & Floro E. Caroleo & Orietta Dessy, 2013. "Stepping stones versus dead end jobs: exits from temporary contracts in Italy after the 2003 reform," Rivista Internazionale di Scienze Sociali, Vita e Pensiero, Pubblicazioni dell'Universita' Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, vol. 121(1), pages 31-62.
    11. Dal Bianco, Silvia & Bruno, Randolph L. & Signorelli, Marcello, 2015. "The joint impact of labour policies and the “Great Recession” on unemployment in Europe," Economic Systems, Elsevier, vol. 39(1), pages 3-26.
    12. Floro Ernesto Caroleo & Francesco Pastore, 2009. "Le cause del(l') (in)successo lavorativo dei giovani," Economia & lavoro, Carocci editore, issue 3, pages 107-107.
    13. Floro Ernesto Caroleo & Elvira Ciociano & Sergio Destefanis, 2017. "Youth Labour-Market Performance, Institutions and Vet Systems: A Cross-Country Analysis," Italian Economic Journal: A Continuation of Rivista Italiana degli Economisti and Giornale degli Economisti, Springer;Società Italiana degli Economisti (Italian Economic Association), vol. 3(1), pages 39-69, March.
    14. Floro Ernesto Caroleo & Elvira Ciociano & Sergio Destefanis, 2017. "The role of the education systems and the labour market institutions in enhancing youth employment: a cross-country analysis," Discussion Papers 1_2017, CRISEI, University of Naples "Parthenope", Italy.
    15. Cristiano Perugini & Marcello Signorelli, 2007. "Labour Market Performance Differentials and Dynamics in EU-15 Countries and Regions," European Journal of Comparative Economics, Cattaneo University (LIUC), vol. 4(2), pages 209-262, September.
    16. Pierella Paci & Erwin R. Tiongson & Mateusz Walewski & Jacek Liwinski & Maria M. Stoilkova, 2007. "Internal Labor Mobility in Central Europe and the Baltic Region," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 6598, June.
    17. Niall O’Higgins, 2010. "Youth Labour Markets in Europe and Central Asia," Working Papers id:2740, eSocialSciences.
    18. Pastore, Francesco, 2013. "Primum vivere… Industrial Change, Job Destruction and the Geographical Distribution of Unemployment," IZA Discussion Papers 7126, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    19. G. S. F. Bruno & M. T. Choudhry & E. Marelli & M. Signorelli, 2014. "Youth Unemployment: Key Determinants and the Impact of Crises," AIEL Series in Labour Economics, in: Miguel Ángel Malo & Dario Sciulli (ed.), Disadvantaged Workers, edition 127, chapter 0, pages 121-148, Springer.
    20. O'Higgins, Niall, 2012. "This Time It's Different? Youth Labour Markets During 'The Great Recession'," IZA Discussion Papers 6434, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).

    More about this item

    Keywords

    financial crises; regional youth unemployment; Russian labour market.;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • G01 - Financial Economics - - General - - - Financial Crises
    • R23 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Household Analysis - - - Regional Migration; Regional Labor Markets; Population
    • E24 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Consumption, Saving, Production, Employment, and Investment - - - Employment; Unemployment; Wages; Intergenerational Income Distribution; Aggregate Human Capital; Aggregate Labor Productivity

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:pia:wpaper:78/2010. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Ubaldo Pizzoli). General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/deperit.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.