IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/aea/jeclit/v39y2001i1p34-92.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

The School-to-Work Transition: A Cross-National Perspective

Author

Listed:
  • Paul Ryan

Abstract

School-to-work patterns and issues are discussed for seven economies (France, Germany, Japan, the Netherlands, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States). The emphasis is placed on differences across countries in the current labor market position of young people and recent trends therein, along with the institutions that regulate youth education, training, and employment. The power of public policies--including labor market deregulation, labor market programs, vocationalization of education, and apprenticeship--to improve youth outcomes is discussed, drawing on national evaluation literatures. Evidence of extensive policy failure points up the need to develop nationally appropriate institutions to improve school-to-work transitions.

Suggested Citation

  • Paul Ryan, 2001. "The School-to-Work Transition: A Cross-National Perspective," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 39(1), pages 34-92, March.
  • Handle: RePEc:aea:jeclit:v:39:y:2001:i:1:p:34-92
    Note: DOI: 10.1257/jel.39.1.34
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.aeaweb.org/articles.php?doi=10.1257/jel.39.1.34
    Download Restriction: Access to full text is restricted to AEA members and institutional subscribers.

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Thierry Magnac, 1997. "Les stages et l'insertion professionnelle des jeunes : une évaluation statistique," Économie et Statistique, Programme National Persée, vol. 304(1), pages 75-94.
    2. Daron Acemoglu & Jörn-Steffen Pischke, 1998. "Why Do Firms Train? Theory and Evidence," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 113(1), pages 79-119.
    3. LaLonde, Robert J, 1986. "Evaluating the Econometric Evaluations of Training Programs with Experimental Data," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 76(4), pages 604-620, September.
    4. Dolton, Peter J & Makepeace, Gerald H & Treble, John G, 1994. "The Youth Training Scheme and the School-to-Work Transition," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 46(4), pages 629-657, October.
    5. Liliane Bonnal & Ludovic Fleury & Marie-Béatrice Rochard, 1999. "L'insertion professionnelle des apprentis et des lycéens professionnels : des emplois proches des formations suivies," Économie et Statistique, Programme National Persée, vol. 323(1), pages 3-30.
    6. David Marsden & Paul Ryan, 1990. "Institutional Aspects of Youth Employment and Training Policy in Britain," British Journal of Industrial Relations, London School of Economics, vol. 28(3), pages 351-369, November.
    7. Juan Dolado & Francis Kramarz & Steven Machin & Alan Manning & David Margolis & Coen Teulings, 1996. "The Economic Impact of Minimum Wages in Europe," Université Paris1 Panthéon-Sorbonne (Post-Print and Working Papers) halshs-00353896, HAL.
    8. Dolton, Peter J & Makepeace, Gerald H & Treble, John G, 1994. "The Wage Effect of YTS: Evidence from YCS," Scottish Journal of Political Economy, Scottish Economic Society, vol. 41(4), pages 444-453, November.
    9. Lynch, Lisa M, 1989. "The Youth Labor Market in the Eighties: Determinants of Re-employment Probabilities for Young Men and Women," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 71(1), pages 37-45, February.
    10. Richard B. Freeman & David A. Wise, 1982. "The Youth Labor Market Problem: Its Nature Causes and Consequences," NBER Chapters,in: The Youth Labor Market Problem: Its Nature, Causes, and Consequences, pages 1-16 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    11. Parsons, Donald O, 1991. "The Job Search Behavior of Employed Youth," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 73(4), pages 597-604, November.
    12. Jovanovic, Boyan, 1979. "Job Matching and the Theory of Turnover," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 87(5), pages 972-990, October.
    13. Meyer, Robert H & Wise, David A, 1983. "The Effects of the Minimum Wage on the Employment and Earnings of Youth," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 1(1), pages 66-100, January.
    14. Clark, Andrew E & Oswald, Andrew J, 1994. "Unhappiness and Unemployment," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 104(424), pages 648-659, May.
    15. Marc Bordigoni & Michèle Mansuy, 1997. "Les parcours professionnels des lycéens et apprentis débutants," Économie et Statistique, Programme National Persée, vol. 304(1), pages 109-120.
    16. Levy, Frank & Murnane, Richard J, 1992. "U.S. Earnings Levels and Earnings Inequality: A Review of Recent Trends and Proposed Explanations," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 30(3), pages 1333-1381, September.
    17. Jacob A. Mincer, 1974. "Introduction to "Schooling, Experience, and Earnings"," NBER Chapters,in: Schooling, Experience, and Earnings, pages 1-4 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    18. repec:hal:journl:halshs-00353896 is not listed on IDEAS
    19. Franz, Wolfgang & Inkmann, Joachim & Pohlmeier, Winfried & Zimmermann, Volker, 1997. "Young and out in Germany: On the youths' chances of labor market entrance in Germany," Discussion Papers 40, University of Konstanz, Center for International Labor Economics (CILE).
    20. William A. Darity & Arthur H. Goldsmith, 1996. "Social Psychology, Unemployment and Macroeconomics," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 10(1), pages 121-140, Winter.
    21. repec:sae:niesru:v:150:y::i:1:p:73-89 is not listed on IDEAS
    22. Paul Ryan, 1995. "Trade Union Policies towards the Youth Training Scheme: Patterns and Causes," British Journal of Industrial Relations, London School of Economics, vol. 33(1), pages 1-33, March.
    23. Abe Yukiko, 1994. "Specific Capital, Adverse Selection, and Turnover: A Comparison of the United States and Japan," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 8(3), pages 272-292, September.
    24. Edward P. Lazear, 1990. "Job Security Provisions and Employment," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 105(3), pages 699-726.
    25. Winkelmann, Rainer, 1994. "Training, Earnings and Mobility in Germany," CEPR Discussion Papers 982, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    26. Rees, Albert, 1986. "An Essay on Youth Joblessness," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 24(2), pages 613-628, June.
    27. Paul R. Krugman, 1994. "Past and prospective causes of high unemployment," Proceedings - Economic Policy Symposium - Jackson Hole, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City, issue Jan, pages 49-98.
    28. Howard S. Bloom & Larry L. Orr & Stephen H. Bell & George Cave & Fred Doolittle & Winston Lin & Johannes M. Bos, 1997. "The Benefits and Costs of JTPA Title II-A Programs: Key Findings from the National Job Training Partnership Act Study," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 32(3), pages 549-576.
    29. Prais,S. J., 1995. "Productivity, Education and Training," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521556675, May.
    30. Neal, Derek, 1999. "The Complexity of Job Mobility among Young Men," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 17(2), pages 237-261, April.
    31. Acemoglu, Daron & Pischke, Jorn-Steffen, 1999. "Beyond Becker: Training in Imperfect Labour Markets," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 109(453), pages 112-142, February.
    32. Lisa M. Lynch, 1994. "Training and the Private Sector: International Comparisons," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number lync94-1.
    33. Stephen Nickell, 1997. "Unemployment and Labor Market Rigidities: Europe versus North America," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 11(3), pages 55-74, Summer.
    34. Joseph G. Altonji, 1995. "The Effects of High School Curriculum on Education and Labor Market Outcomes," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 30(3), pages 409-438.
    35. Green, Francis & Hoskins, Martin & Montgomery, Scott, 1996. "The Effects of Company Training, Further Education and the Youth Training Scheme on the Earnings of Young Employees," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 58(3), pages 469-488, August.
    36. Thomas J. Kane & Dietmar Harhoff, 1997. "Is the German apprenticeship system a panacea for the U.S. labor market?," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 10(2), pages 171-196.
    37. O'Higgins, Niall, 1994. "YTS, Employment, and Sample Selection Bias," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 46(4), pages 605-628, October.
    38. Gregory DeFreitas & David Marsden & Paul Ryan, 1991. "Youth Employment Patterns in Segmented Labor Markets in the U.S. and Europe," Eastern Economic Journal, Eastern Economic Association, vol. 17(2), pages 223-236, Apr-Jun.
    39. Daniel Friedlander & David H. Greenberg & Philip K. Robins, 1997. "Evaluating Government Training Programs for the Economically Disadvantaged," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 35(4), pages 1809-1855, December.
    40. Howard Gospel, 1994. "The Survival of Apprenticeship Training: A British, American, Australian Comparison," British Journal of Industrial Relations, London School of Economics, vol. 32(4), pages 505-522, December.
    41. Beaudry, Paul & DiNardo, John, 1991. "The Effect of Implicit Contracts on the Movement of Wages over the Business Cycle: Evidence from Micro Data," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 99(4), pages 665-688, August.
    42. Stevens, Margaret, 1994. "A Theoretical Model of On-the-Job Training with Imperfect Competition," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 46(4), pages 537-562, October.
    43. I. G. Begg & A. P. Blake & B. M. Deakin, 1991. "YTS and the Labour Market," British Journal of Industrial Relations, London School of Economics, vol. 29(2), pages 223-236, June.
    44. James J. Heckman & Jeffrey A. Smith, 1999. "The Pre-Program Earnings Dip and the Determinants of Participation in a Social Program: Implications for Simple Program Evaluation Strategies," NBER Working Papers 6983, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    45. Robert H. Topel & Michael P. Ward, 1992. "Job Mobility and the Careers of Young Men," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 107(2), pages 439-479.
    46. Valerie Jarvis, 1994. "Smoothing The Transition To Skilled Employment: School-Based Vocational Guidance in Britain and Continental Europe," National Institute Economic Review, National Institute of Economic and Social Research, vol. 150(1), pages 73-89, November.
    47. Thierry Magnac, 1997. "State Dependence and Heterogeity in youth Employment Histories," Working Papers 97-47, Center for Research in Economics and Statistics.
    48. repec:hhs:iuiwop:432 is not listed on IDEAS
    49. Jacob A. Mincer, 1974. "Schooling, Experience, and Earnings," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number minc74-1.
    50. Gilbert Cette & Philippe Cuneo & Didier Eyssartier & Jérôme Gautié, 1996. "Coût du travail et emploi des jeunes," Revue de l'OFCE, Programme National Persée, vol. 56(1), pages 45-72.
    51. Rainer Winkelmann, 1996. "Employment Prospects and Skill Acquisition of Apprenticeship-Trained Workers in Germany," ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 49(4), pages 658-672, July.
    52. Sophie Ponthieux, 1997. "Débuter dans la vie active au milieu des années quatre-vingt-dix : des conditions qui se dégradent," Économie et Statistique, Programme National Persée, vol. 304(1), pages 37-51.
    53. Narendranathan, Wiji & Elias, Peter, 1993. "Influences of Past History on the Incidence of Youth Unemployment: Empirical Findings for the UK," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 55(2), pages 161-185, May.
    54. Andrews, Martyn & Bradley, Steve & Upward, Richard, 1999. "Estimating Youth Training Wage Differentials during and after Training," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 51(3), pages 517-544, July.
    55. Martine Möbus & Patrick Sevestre, 1991. "Formation professionnelle et emploi : un lien plus marqué en Allemagne," Économie et Statistique, Programme National Persée, vol. 246(1), pages 77-89.
    56. Flaig, Gebhard & Licht, Georg & Steiner, Viktor, 1993. "Testing for state dependence effects in a dynamic model of male unemployment behaviour," ZEW Discussion Papers 93-07, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
    57. Connolly, Sara & Micklewright, John & Nickell, Stephen, 1992. "The Occupational Success of Young Men Who Left School at Sixteen," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 44(3), pages 460-479, July.
    58. Günther Schmid & Jacqueline O’Reilly & Klaus Schömann (ed.), 1996. "International Handbook of Labour Market Policy and Evaluation," Books, Edward Elgar Publishing, number 955.
    59. Hashimoto, Masanori, 1982. "Minimum Wage Effects on Training on the Job," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 72(5), pages 1070-1087, December.
    60. Gregg, Paul, 2001. "The Impact of Youth Unemployment on Adult Unemployment in the NCDS," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 111(475), pages 626-653, November.
    61. Ackum, Susanne, 1991. " Youth Unemployment, Labor Market Programs and Subsequent Earnings," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 93(4), pages 531-543.
    62. Baker, Michael & Benjamin, Dwayne & Stanger, Shuchita, 1999. "The Highs and Lows of the Minimum Wage Effect: A Time-Series Cross-Section Study of the Canadian Law," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 17(2), pages 318-350, April.
    63. O'Higgins, Shane Niall, 1995. "Why did the youth training scheme reduce reduce the wages of young people? A story of human capital formation, reservation wages and job offers," CELPE Discussion Papers 18, CELPE - Centre of Labour Economics and Economic Policy, University of Salerno, Italy.
    64. Heckman, James J & Borjas, George J, 1980. "Does Unemployment Cause Future Unemployment? Definitions, Questions and Answers from a Continuous Time Model of Heterogeneity and State Dependence," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 47(187), pages 247-283, August.
    65. Steedman, Hilary, 1993. "The Economics of Youth Training in Germany," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 103(420), pages 1279-1291, September.
    66. Heckman, James J, 1991. "Identifying the Hand of the Past: Distinguishing State Dependence from Heterogeneity," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 81(2), pages 75-79, May.
    67. Mari Sako, 1991. "Institutional Aspects of Youth Employment and Training Policy: A Comment on Marsden and Ryan," British Journal of Industrial Relations, London School of Economics, vol. 29(3), pages 485-490, September.
    68. Heckman, James J & Smith, Jeffrey A, 1999. "The Pre-programme Earnings Dip and the Determinants of Participation in a Social Programme. Implications for Simple Programme Evaluation Strategies," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 109(457), pages 313-348, July.
    69. Lisa M. Lynch, 1994. "Introduction to "Training and the Private Sector"," NBER Chapters,in: Training and the Private Sector: International Comparisons, pages 1-24 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • J24 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Human Capital; Skills; Occupational Choice; Labor Productivity
    • J13 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Fertility; Family Planning; Child Care; Children; Youth

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:aea:jeclit:v:39:y:2001:i:1:p:34-92. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Jane Voros) or (Michael P. Albert). General contact details of provider: http://edirc.repec.org/data/aeaaaea.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.