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Coût du travail et emploi des jeunes

  • Gilbert Cette
  • Philippe Cuneo
  • Didier Eyssartier
  • Jérôme Gautié

[eng] It is sometimes said that, in France, the extent of relative youth unemployment is due to the fact that there are no institutional methods, without considering the wide range of unemployment policies, that would enable to disconnect youth labour cost from adult labour cost. Such a disconnection may appear to be necessary in order to compensate for lower productivity, stemming from inexperience and a lack of training. The aim of this study is to give some elements to evaluate the macro- economic effects on may expect from a lowering of youth labour cost through a youth minimum wage or a specific reduction of employer's social contributions for young employed persons. Going through the theorical and empirical littérature gives the impression of a lot of uncertainties : empirical studies do not give precise answers to problems that are not solved by the theory regarding the impacts on employment and youth employment of the minimum wage. Empirical studies, curried out upon both North America and France, show results having poor robustness or even contradictory conclusions, especially concerning the present period. The present evaluation relies on the hypothesis of an elasticity of substitution between production factors (labour, capital but also between categories of the working population) equals to one. Our results confirm that the impact of both measures could be large as far as employment is concerned. Even if there is no massive solution to the nowadays worrying situation of the labour market, it seems that employment, especially youth employment, should be strongly stimulated. However, our results indicate that the total number of job creations is always less numerous than that of job creations for young persons. It means that the studied policies, even if they may improve the youth labour market, may have be detrimental for the adult labour market which would face job destructions. [fre] L'importance du chômage relatif des jeunes, en France, est parfois attribuée à l'absence de modalités institutionnelles, hors dispositifs de la politique de l'emploi au sens large, qui permettraient de déconnecter le coût du travail des jeunes de celui des adultes. Une telle déconnexion peut apparaître comme la compensation nécessaire d'une moindre productivité, due à l'inexpérience et au manque de formation. L'objet de cette étude est de fournir quelques éléments de synthèse de la littérature sur ce thème, puis de proposer une évaluation des effets macroéconomiques à attendre d'un abaissement du coût du travail des jeunes sous la forme soit de l'instauration d'un SMIC-jeunes, soit d'une diminution spécifique aux jeunes des charges sociales employeurs. Le survol de la littérature théorique et empirique débouche sur l'impression d'une relative incertitude, au sens où les études empiriques ne semblent pas vraiment trancher des questions que la théorie laisse elle-même en suspens, concernant les effets du salaire minimum (SM) sur l'emploi et le chômage des jeunes. La difficulté à se faire une idée claire des effets du SM découle des résultats peu robustes ou contradictoires des études empiriques, en Amérique du Nord comme en France, notamment pour la période récente. L'évaluation proposée repose sur l'hypothèse d'une élasticité de substitution unitaire entre les facteurs de production (capital et travail, mais aussi entre les diverses catégories d'actifs). Les résultats obtenus confirment que l'impact des deux mesures, en termes d'emplois créés pour les jeunes, serait important. Nos résultats indiquent cependant que les créations nettes d'emplois sont toujours plus nombreuses pour les jeunes que pour l'ensemble des actifs. Ce qui signifie que les mesures envisagées, si elles amélioreraient la situation des jeunes, dégraderaient dans le même temps la situation des non-jeunes qui subiraient des destructions nettes d'emplois.

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File URL: http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.3406/ofce.1996.1415
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File URL: http://www.persee.fr/doc/ofce_0751-6614_1996_num_56_1_1415
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Article provided by Programme National Persée in its journal Revue de l'OFCE.

Volume (Year): 56 (1996)
Issue (Month): 1 ()
Pages: 45-72

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Handle: RePEc:prs:rvofce:ofce_0751-6614_1996_num_56_1_1415
Note: DOI:10.3406/ofce.1996.1415
Contact details of provider: Web page: http://www.persee.fr/collection/ofce

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  1. Lawrence F. Katz & Alan B. Krueger, 1992. "The Effect of the Minimum Wage on the Fast Food Industry," NBER Working Papers 3997, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  2. Lawrence Katz & Alan Krueger, 1992. "The Effect of the Minimum Wage on the Fast Food Industry," Working Papers 678, Princeton University, Department of Economics, Industrial Relations Section..
  3. Pierre Cahuc & Cette Gilbert & André Zylberberg, 2008. "Salaire minimum et bas revenus," Université Paris1 Panthéon-Sorbonne (Post-Print and Working Papers) halshs-00638149, HAL.
  4. Card, David & Krueger, Alan B, 1994. "Minimum Wages and Employment: A Case Study of the Fast-Food Industry in New Jersey and Pennsylvania," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 84(4), pages 772-93, September.
  5. David Card, 1992. "Using Regional Variation in Wages to Measure the Effects of the Federal Minimum Wage," Working Papers 680, Princeton University, Department of Economics, Industrial Relations Section..
  6. Alison J. Wellington, 1991. "Effects of the Minimum Wage on the Employment Status of Youths: An Update," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 26(1), pages 27-46.
  7. repec:pri:indrel:298 is not listed on IDEAS
  8. Brown, Charles & Gilroy, Curtis & Kohen, Andrew, 1982. "The Effect of the Minimum Wage on Employment and Unemployment," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 20(2), pages 487-528, June.
  9. Grenier, Gilles & Séguin, Marc, 1991. "L’incidence du salaire minimum sur le marché du travail des adolescents au Canada : une reconsidération des résultats empiriques," L'Actualité Economique, Société Canadienne de Science Economique, vol. 67(2), pages 123-143, juin.
  10. repec:fth:prinin:300 is not listed on IDEAS
  11. David Card & Alan Krueger, 1993. "Minimum Wages and Employment: A Case Study of the Fast Food Industry in New Jersey and Pennsylvania," Working Papers 694, Princeton University, Department of Economics, Industrial Relations Section..
  12. Cousineau, Jean-Michel, 1991. "L’effet du salaire minimum sur le chômage des jeunes et des femmes au Québec : une réestimation et un réexamen de la question," L'Actualité Economique, Société Canadienne de Science Economique, vol. 67(2), pages 144-165, juin.
  13. David Neumark & William Wascher, 1992. "Employment Effects of Minimum and Subminimum Wages: Panel Data on State Minimum Wage Laws," ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 46(1), pages 55-81, October.
  14. Charles Brown & Curtis Gilroy & Andrew Kohen, 1982. "The Effect of the Minimum Wage on Employment and Unemployment: A Survey," NBER Working Papers 0846, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  15. Charles Brown & Curtis Gilroy & Andrew Kohen, 1983. "Time-Series Evidence of the Effect of the Minimum Wage on Youth Employment and Unemployment," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 18(1), pages 3-31.
  16. David Card, 1992. "Using Regional Variation in Wages to Measure the Effects of the Federal Minimum Wage," NBER Working Papers 4058, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  17. Didier Blanchet, 1994. "Transferts fiscaux, répartition du revenu et équilibre des emplois de service," Économie et Prévision, Programme National Persée, vol. 115(4), pages 85-91.
  18. Patrick Sevestre, 1990. "Qualification de la main-d'oeuvre et productivité du travail," Économie et Statistique, Programme National Persée, vol. 237(1), pages 109-120.
  19. repec:fth:prinin:315 is not listed on IDEAS
  20. Yves Bourdet & Inga Persson, 1991. "Chômage des jeunes et fonctionnement du marché du travail : les cas français et suédois," Économie et Statistique, Programme National Persée, vol. 249(1), pages 39-51.
  21. repec:pri:indrel:315 is not listed on IDEAS
  22. repec:fth:prinin:298 is not listed on IDEAS
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