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Le chômage des jeunes en France : un état des lieux

  • Catherine Bruno
  • Sandrine Cazes

[eng] Over the last twenty years, youth unemployment has become a major issue of the French labour market situation. It explains the increasing public intervention in the labour market targeted to the youths. This article tries to shed some light on two main aspects of the youth labour market situation : the impact of the minimum wage on the youth (un)employment and the adequacy of the qualification acquired at school to the needs of firms. It compares also their situation to the adults' one. Overall, we have not found sharp specificities of youth unemployment compared to the adult one : more precisely, the economic activity is one of the most important determinants of both youth and adult unemployment. Moreover, our results suggest no evidence on the effect of the minimum wage on youth unemployment over the period. Finally, education problems (skill mismatch, training unrelated to subsequent employment, etc.) are emphasized by jobs shortage, so that the least qualified youths are « queuing for jobs » at the bottom of the file. [fre] En France, au cours des vingt dernières années, la lutte contre le chômage des jeunes est devenue un des objectifs prioritaires de tous les gouvernements. En effet, le taux de chômage des jeunes est rarement passé en dessous de 20 % depuis 1983. Cependant, cette situation n'est pas spécifiquement française ; l'Italie et l'Espagne connaissent, eux aussi, un taux de chômage des jeunes élevé. La persistance d'un taux de chômage des jeunes élevé en France est d'autant plus étonnante que les facteurs démographiques et Г allongement de la scolarité auraient dû contribuer à faciliter l'insertion des jeunes actifs sur le marché du travail. Le chômage semble être alors un passage obligé pour les jeunes dans un contexte économique défavorable. Face à ces problèmes, le débat sur le chômage des jeunes a porté sur le coût de travail et l'adéquation des formations aux emplois. L'examen de ces deux points se fait avec l'aide des données issues de l'enquête Emploi réalisée chaque année par l'Insee. Il ressort de cette étude que le chômage des jeunes, comme le chômage des adultes d'ailleurs, est très sensible à l'activité économique. Il n'a pas été possible de montrer, à partir des données annuelles issues de l'enquête Emploi, que le coût du travail avait un impact significatif sur le chômage des jeunes au cours de la période 1970-1994 . De plus, les problèmes de formation se trouvent exacerbés par le fait qu'il y ait une pénurie d'emplois qui se reporte sur les jeunes en général, mais plus encore sur les jeunes non qualifiés qui se retrouvent relégués en queue de file d'attente sur le marché du travail.

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File URL: http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.3406/ofce.1997.1467
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File URL: http://www.persee.fr/doc/ofce_0751-6614_1997_num_62_1_1467
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Article provided by Programme National Persée in its journal Revue de l'OFCE.

Volume (Year): 62 (1997)
Issue (Month): 1 ()
Pages: 75-107

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Handle: RePEc:prs:rvofce:ofce_0751-6614_1997_num_62_1_1467
Note: DOI:10.3406/ofce.1997.1467
Contact details of provider: Web page: http://www.persee.fr/collection/ofce

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  1. Yves Bourdet & Inga Persson, 1991. "Chômage des jeunes et fonctionnement du marché du travail : les cas français et suédois," Économie et Statistique, Programme National Persée, vol. 249(1), pages 39-51.
  2. Alan Manning, 1995. "How Do We Know That Real Wages Are Too High?," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 110(4), pages 1111-1125.
  3. David Card & Francis Kramarz & Thomas Lemieux, 1996. "Changes in the Relative Structure of Wages and Employment: A Comparison of the United States, Canada, and France," NBER Working Papers 5487, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  4. Granger, C W J, 1969. "Investigating Causal Relations by Econometric Models and Cross-Spectral Methods," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 37(3), pages 424-38, July.
  5. Gilbert Cette & Philippe Cuneo & Didier Eyssartier & Jérôme Gautié, 1996. "Coût du travail et emploi des jeunes," Revue de l'OFCE, Programme National Persée, vol. 56(1), pages 45-72.
  6. Meyer, Robert H & Wise, David A, 1983. "The Effects of the Minimum Wage on the Employment and Earnings of Youth," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 1(1), pages 66-100, January.
  7. Edward M. Gramlich, 1976. "Impact of Minimum Wages on Other Wages, Employment, and Family Incomes," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 7(2), pages 409-462.
  8. Dominique Goux & Eric Maurin, 1993. "Dynamique des professions et adaptation du système productif," Économie et Statistique, Programme National Persée, vol. 261(1), pages 55-65.
  9. Monique Meron & Claude Minni, 1995. "Des études à l'emploi : plus tard et plus difficilement qu'il y a vingt ans," Économie et Statistique, Programme National Persée, vol. 283(1), pages 9-31.
  10. Machin, Stephen & Manning, Alan, 1996. "Employment and the Introduction of a Minimum Wage in Britain," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 106(436), pages 667-76, May.
  11. Burda, Michael & Wyplosz, Charles, 1994. "Gross worker and job flows in Europe," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 38(6), pages 1287-1315, June.
  12. Henri Sneessens, 1994. "Courbe de Beveridge et demande de qualifications," Économie et Prévision, Programme National Persée, vol. 113(2), pages 127-137.
  13. Rebitzer, James B. & Taylor, Lowell J., 1995. "The consequences of minimum wage laws Some new theoretical ideas," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 56(2), pages 245-255, February.
  14. N. Gregory Mankiw & David Romer & David N. Weil, 1990. "A Contribution to the Empirics of Economic Growth," NBER Working Papers 3541, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  15. Adie, Douglas K, 1973. "Teen-Age Unemployment and Real Federal Minimum Wages," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 81(2), pages 435-41, Part I, M.
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