Youth Labour Markets in Europe and Central Asia
Transition to the market economy in ECA opened up a range of potential opportunities for young people. It has also raised a series of challenges. Youth unemployment and joblessness have emerged as serious problems with the potentially very high costs. Formal Education and Training systems have been slow to adapt to the changing requirements placed upon them by the rapidly changing industrial structure arising from transition. The damage arising from on the one hand rising expectations and on the other the failure of systems to accommodate these is likely to have long-term consequences. It is important then that countries in ECA support young people in fulfilling their potential. This paper looks at developments in and around the transition of young people from education to work in the ECA region in recent years. The purpose of the paper is to aid understanding of the current situation and to suggest areas where action is most needed and is likely to be most effective. The first section considers developments in the general economic context of relevance to young people. Section 2 goes onto consider the current situation of (and trends in) factors affecting young people’s entry into work. Section 3 assesses policies affecting youth employment and unemployment and section concludes identifying key issues and areas where action is needed and where it is likely to be effective.
|Date of creation:||Jul 2010|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: |
Phone: +49 228 3894 223
Fax: +49 228 3894 180
Web page: http://www.iza.org
|Order Information:|| Postal: IZA, Margard Ody, P.O. Box 7240, D-53072 Bonn, Germany|
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Niall O'Higgins, 2005.
"Trends in the Youth Labour Market in Developing and Transition Countries,"
Labor and Demography
- Niall O'Higgins, 2003. "Trends in the youth labour market in developing and transition countries," Social Protection Discussion Papers 27876, The World Bank.
- Friedrich Schneider, 2006.
"Shadow Economies and Corruption all over the World: What do we really Know?,"
CESifo Working Paper Series
1806, CESifo Group Munich.
- Schneider, Friedrich, 2006. "Shadow Economies and Corruption All Over the World: What Do We Really Know?," IZA Discussion Papers 2315, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Schneider, Friedrich G., 2007. "Shadow economies and corruption all over the world: what do we really know?," Economics Discussion Papers 2007-9, Kiel Institute for the World Economy.
- Friedrich G. Schneider, 2006. "Shadow Economies and Corruption all over the World: What do we really know?," Economics working papers 2006-17, Department of Economics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria.
- Rutkowski, Jan, 2006. "Labor market developments during economic transition," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3894, The World Bank.
- Mukesh Chawla & Gordon Betcherman & Arup Banerji, 2007. "From Red to Gray : The "Third Transition" of Aging Populations in Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 6741.
- Niall O'Higgins, 2005. "The Challenge of Youth Unemployment," Labor and Demography 0507003, EconWPA.
- Sanders Korenman & David Neumark, 1997.
"Cohort Crowding and Youth Labor Markets: A Cross-National Analysis,"
NBER Working Papers
6031, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Sanders Korenman & David Neumark, 2000. "Cohort Crowding and Youth Labor Markets (A Cross-National Analysis)," NBER Chapters, in: Youth Employment and Joblessness in Advanced Countries, pages 57-106 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Kertesi, Gabor & KÃ¶llő, János, 2003.
"Fighting “Low Equilibria” by Doubling the Minimum Wage? Hungary’s Experiment,"
IZA Discussion Papers
970, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Gábor Kertei & János Köll?, 2004. "Fighting “Low Equilibria” by Doubling the Minimum Wage ? Hungary’s Experiment," William Davidson Institute Working Papers Series 2004-644, William Davidson Institute at the University of Michigan.
- Betcherman, Gordon & Olivas, Karina & Dar, Amit, 2004. "Impacts of active labor market programs : new evidence from evaluations with particular attention to developing and transition countries," Social Protection Discussion Papers 29142, The World Bank.
- Stephen Nickell & Brian Bell, 1996.
"Would cutting payroll taxes on the unskilled have a significant effect on unemployment?,"
LSE Research Online Documents on Economics
20687, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
- B Bell & Stephen Nickell, 1996. "Would Cutting Payroll Taxes on the Unskilled Have a Significant Effect on Unemployment?," CEP Discussion Papers dp0276, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
- Henley, Andrew & Arabsheibani, G. Reza & Carneiro, Francisco G., 2006.
"On defining and measuring the informal sector,"
Policy Research Working Paper Series
3866, The World Bank.
- Andrea Bassanini & Romain Duval, 2006.
"Employment Patterns in OECD Countries: Reassessing the Role of Policies and Institutions,"
OECD Social, Employment and Migration Working Papers
35, OECD Publishing.
- Andrea Bassanini & Romain Duval, 2006. "Employment Patterns in OECD Countries: Reassessing the Role of Policies and Institutions," OECD Economics Department Working Papers 486, OECD Publishing.
- John Van Reenen, 2003.
"Active Labour Market Policies and the British New Deal for the Young Unemployed in Context,"
NBER Working Papers
9576, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- John Van Reenen, 2004. "Active Labor Market Policies and the British New Deal for the Young Unemployed in Context," NBER Chapters, in: Seeking a Premier Economy: The Economic Effects of British Economic Reforms, 1980-2000, pages 461-496 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Tito Boeri & Katherine Terrell, 2002.
"Institutional Determinants of Labor Reallocation in Transition,"
Journal of Economic Perspectives,
American Economic Association, vol. 16(1), pages 51-76, Winter.
- Tito Boeri & Katherine Terrell, 2001. "Institutional Determinants of Labor Reallocation in Transition," William Davidson Institute Working Papers Series 384, William Davidson Institute at the University of Michigan.
- Sandrine Cazes & Stefano Scarpetta, 1998. "Labour market transitions and unemployment duration: Evidence from Bulgarian and Polish micro-data," The Economics of Transition, The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, vol. 6(1), pages 113-144, 05.
- Lubyova, M. & van Ours, J.C., 1998.
"Unemployment Durations of Job Losers in a Labor Market in Transition,"
1998-39, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research.
- Martina Lubyova & Jan C. van Ours, 1999. "Unemployment durations of job losers in a labour market in transition," The Economics of Transition, The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, vol. 7(3), pages 665-686, November.
- Canning, M. & Moock, P. & Heleniak, T., 1999. "Reforming Education in the Regions of Russia," Papers 457, World Bank - Technical Papers.
- Niall O'Higgins & Andrey Ivanov, 2006. "Education and Employment Opportunities for the Roma," Comparative Economic Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 48(1), pages 6-19, March.
- Fretwell, David H. & Benus, Jacob & O'Leary, Christopher J., 1999. "Evaluating the impact of active labor programs : results of cross country studies in Europe and Central Asia," Social Protection Discussion Papers 20131, The World Bank.
- Kolev, Alexandre & Saget, Catherine, 2005. "Towards a better understanding of the nature, causes and consequences of youth labor market disadvantage: evidence for South-East Europe," Social Protection Discussion Papers 32544, The World Bank.
- World Bank, 2005. "Expanding Opportunities and Building Competencies for Young People : A New Agenda for Secondary Education," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 7429.
- Glenda Quintini & Sébastien Martin, 2006. "Starting Well or Losing their Way?: The Position of Youth in the Labour Market in OECD Countries," OECD Social, Employment and Migration Working Papers 39, OECD Publishing.
- Barbara Sianesi & John Van Reenen, 2003. "The Returns to Education: Macroeconomics," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 17(2), pages 157-200, 04.
- O'Higgins, Niall, 2001. "Youth unemployment and employment policy: a global perspective," MPRA Paper 23698, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Judy L. Baker, 2000. "Evaluating the Impact of Development Projects on Poverty : A Handbook for Practitioners," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 13949.
- John Micklewright & Gyula Nagy, 1998.
"The Implications of Exhausting Unemployment Insurance Entitlement in Hungary,"
Budapest Working Papers on the Labour Market
9802, Institute of Economics, Centre for Economic and Regional Studies, Hungarian Academy of Sciences.
- John Micklewright & Gyula Nagy, 1997. "The Implications of Exhausting Unemployment Insurance Entitlement in Hungary," Innocenti Occasional Papers, Economic Policy Series iopeps97/8, UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre.
- Robert G. Fay, 1996. "Enhancing the Effectiveness of Active Labour Market Policies: Evidence from Programme Evaluations in OECD Countries," OECD Labour Market and Social Policy Occasional Papers 18, OECD Publishing.
- Martin Godfrey, 2003. "Youth employment policy in developing and transition countries - preventionas well as cure," Social Protection Discussion Papers 27875, The World Bank.
- L.Guarcello & M. Manacorda & F. Rosati & J. Fares & S.Lyon & C. Valdivia, 2005. "School-to-Work Transitions in Sub-Saharan Africa: An overview," UCW Working Paper 15, Understanding Children's Work (UCW Programme).
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp5094. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Mark Fallak)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.