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The educational attainment, labour market participation and living conditions of young Roma in Bulgaria, Hungary and Romania


  • Jaromir Cekota

    () (United Nations Economic Commission for Europe)

  • Claudia Trentini

    () (United Nations Economic Commission for Europe)


This paper investigates the educational attainment, labour market participation and living conditions of young Roma adults in Bulgaria, Hungary and Romania based on data from the generations and gender surveys and other sources of information. It shows that in spite of a small improvement in the educational attainment of young Roma in comparison to the generation of their parents, the educational achievement and employment gaps have increased considerably during the post-communist period. The paper also compares living conditions of the Roma with other population groups. It concludes with a discussion of policy challenges.

Suggested Citation

  • Jaromir Cekota & Claudia Trentini, 2011. "The educational attainment, labour market participation and living conditions of young Roma in Bulgaria, Hungary and Romania," ECE Discussion Papers Series 2011_2, UNECE.
  • Handle: RePEc:ece:dispap:2011_2

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    File Function: First version, 2011
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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Andrew Burns & Jaromir Cekota, 2002. "Coping with Population Ageing in Hungary," OECD Economics Department Working Papers 338, OECD Publishing.
    2. Niall O’Higgins, 2010. "Youth Labour Markets in Europe and Central Asia," Working Papers id:2740, eSocialSciences.
    3. Niall O'Higgins & Andrey Ivanov, 2006. "Education and Employment Opportunities for the Roma," Comparative Economic Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Association for Comparative Economic Studies, vol. 48(1), pages 6-19, March.
    4. World Bank, 2008. "Czech Republic : Improving Employment Chances of the Roma," World Bank Other Operational Studies 18915, The World Bank.
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    More about this item


    minorities; Roma; discrimination; employment; education; transition;

    JEL classification:

    • I24 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Education and Inequality
    • I31 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Welfare, Well-Being, and Poverty - - - General Welfare, Well-Being
    • J15 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Minorities, Races, Indigenous Peoples, and Immigrants; Non-labor Discrimination
    • J71 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Labor Discrimination - - - Hiring and Firing

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