IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/wbk/wbrwps/3894.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Labor market developments during economic transition

Author

Listed:
  • Rutkowski, Jan

Abstract

The paper reviews labor market developments in the transition economies of Europe and Central Asia. It argues that the scarcity of productive job opportunities and the growing labor market segmentation are the two main labor market problems facing the transition economies. In the European transition economies thelack of jobs has led to persistent open unemployment. In the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) it has led to hidden unemployment (underemployment and low productivity employment). Unemployment in the European transition economies is supported by the developed social safety net. In contrast, in the CIS for most workers unemployment is not an affordable option. They either stick to their old, unproductive jobs in unrestructured enterprises, or work in the informal sector, or resort to subsistence agriculture. Thus, underemployment in the CIS is a mirror image of unemployment in the European transition economies. Accordingly, the high employment-to-population ratios in many CIS countries do not necessarily signify favorable labor market performance. Instead they often indicate delayed enterprise restructuring, the maintenance of unsustainable jobs in uncompetitive firms, and the existence of a large informal sector as an employer of last resort. Labor market segmentation has been caused by a sharp increase in earnings differentials and the attendant increase in the incidence of low-paid jobs, by the polarization of regional labor market conditions, and finally by the growth of the informal sector offering casual, low-productivity jobs. Labor market segmentation and accompanying inequalities are more pronounced in the CIS than in the European transition economies.

Suggested Citation

  • Rutkowski, Jan, 2006. "Labor market developments during economic transition," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3894, The World Bank.
  • Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:3894
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2006/04/17/000016406_20060417174352/Rendered/PDF/wps3894.pdf
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Daniel Münich & Jan Svejnar & Katherine Terrell, 2005. "Returns to Human Capital Under The Communist Wage Grid and During the Transition to a Market Economy," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 87(1), pages 100-123, February.
    2. Schneider, Friedrich, 2005. "Shadow economies around the world: what do we really know?," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 21(3), pages 598-642, September.
    3. Orazem, Peter F & Vodopivec, Milan, 1995. "Winners and Losers in Transition: Returns to Education, Experience, and Gender in Slovenia," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 9(2), pages 201-230, May.
    4. Rutkowski, Jan J., 2001. "Earnings inequality in transition economies of Central Europetrends and patterns during the 1990s," Social Protection and Labor Policy and Technical Notes 23306, The World Bank.
    5. Rutkowski, Jan, 2003. "Rapid labor reallocation with a stagnant unemployment pool : the puzzle of the labor market in Lithuania," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2946, The World Bank.
    6. Michelle Riboud & Carolina Sánchez-Páramo & Carlos Silva-Jáuregui, 2002. "Does Eurosclerosis Matter? Institutional Reform and Labor Market Performance in Central and Eastern Europe," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 14093, January.
    7. Klara Sabirianova Peter, 2003. "Skill-Biased Transition: The Role of Markets, Institutions, and Technological Change," William Davidson Institute Working Papers Series 2003-616, William Davidson Institute at the University of Michigan.
    8. Huber, Peter, 2004. "Intra-national labor market adjustment in the candidate countries," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(2), pages 248-264, June.
    9. Atkinson,Anthony Barnes & Micklewright,John, 1992. "Economic Transformation in Eastern Europe and the Distribution of Income," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521438827, March.
    10. Andrew Newell & Barry Reilly, 1999. "Rates of Return to Educational Qualifications in the Transitional Economies," Education Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 7(1), pages 67-84.
    11. Fidrmuc, Jan, 2004. "Migration and regional adjustment to asymmetric shocks in transition economies," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(2), pages 230-247, June.
    12. Newell, Andrew & Reilly, Barry, 1997. "Rates of Return to Educational Qualifications in the Transitional Economies," Discussion Papers in Economics 03/97, Department of Economics, University of Sussex.
    13. Peter Huber, 2003. "Quantity Adjustments in Candidate Countries Regional Labour Markets," ERSA conference papers ersa03p239, European Regional Science Association.
    14. Fleisher, Belton M. & Sabirianova, Klara & Wang, Xiaojun, 2005. "Returns to skills and the speed of reforms: Evidence from Central and Eastern Europe, China, and Russia," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 33(2), pages 351-370, June.
    15. Rutkowski, Jan J., 1999. "Labor markets and poverty in Bulgaria," Social Protection and Labor Policy and Technical Notes 20817, The World Bank.
    16. Fabian Bornhorst & Simon Commander, 2006. "Regional unemployment and its persistence in transition countries," The Economics of Transition, The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, vol. 14(2), pages 269-288, April.
    17. Bernard Funck & Lodovico Pizzati, 2002. "Labor, Employment, and Social Policies in the EU Enlargement Process : Changing Perspectives and Policy Options," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 15235, January.
    18. Schneider, Friedrich, 2002. "The Size and Development of the Shadow Economies of 22 Transition and 21 OECD Countries," IZA Discussion Papers 514, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    19. Jan Rutkowski, 1996. "High skills pay off: the changing wage structure during economic transition in Poland," The Economics of Transition, The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, vol. 4(1), pages 89-112, May.
    20. Rutkowski, Jan, 2003. "Does strict employment protection discourage job creation? Evidence from Croatia," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3104, The World Bank.
    21. Rutkowski, Jan, 2003. "Why is unemployment so high in Bulgaria?," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3017, The World Bank.
    22. World Bank, 2003. "The Russian Labor Market : Moving from Crisis to Recovery," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 15007, January.
    23. World Bank, 2002. "Labor Market in Postwar Bosnia and Herzegovina : How to Encourage Businesses to Create Jobs and Increase Worker Mobility," World Bank Other Operational Studies 15333, The World Bank.
    24. Peter, Klara Sabirianova, 2003. "Skill-Biased Transition: The Role of Markets, Institutions, and Technological Change," IZA Discussion Papers 893, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Linz, Susan J. & Semykina, Anastasia, 2008. "How do workers fare during transition? Perceptions of job insecurity among Russian workers, 1995-2004," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 15(3), pages 442-458, June.
    2. McDonald Bruce D & Eger Robert J, 2010. "The Defense-Growth Relationship: An Economic Investigation into Post-Soviet States," Peace Economics, Peace Science, and Public Policy, De Gruyter, vol. 16(1), pages 1-28, September.
    3. Mariusz Zielinski, 2015. "Unemployment And Labor Market Policy In Visegrad Group Countries," Equilibrium. Quarterly Journal of Economics and Economic Policy, Institute of Economic Research, vol. 10(3), pages 185-201, September.
    4. Linz, Susan J. & Luke Chu, Yu-Wei, 2013. "Work ethic in formerly socialist economies," Journal of Economic Psychology, Elsevier, vol. 39(C), pages 185-203.
    5. Niall O’Higgins, 2010. "Youth Labour Markets in Europe and Central Asia," Working Papers id:2740, eSocialSciences.
    6. Arabsheibani, Reza & Mussurov, Altay, 2006. "Returns to Schooling in Kazakhstan: OLS and Instrumental Variables Approach," IZA Discussion Papers 2462, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Labor Markets; Labor Standards; Labor Management and Relations; Educational Policy and Planning; Work&Working Conditions;

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:3894. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Roula I. Yazigi). General contact details of provider: http://edirc.repec.org/data/dvewbus.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.