Why is unemployment so high in Bulgaria?
The author seeks to determine the main factors behind poor labor market outcomes in Bulgaria. Unemployment in Bulgaria is high and of long duration. The accumulation of the unemployment stock has been caused by relatively high inflows into unemployment coupled with limited outflows. These features of the Bulgarian labor market are typical of other transition economies in Central Europe and exploring their sources is of broad interest. The author focuses on determinants of and constraints to job creation. He uses data on job creation and job destruction from a survey of employment in all registered firms. He finds that the source of large inflows into unemployment is intensive enterprise restructuring associated with a high pace of job reallocation. However, job creation falls short of job destruction. Three main factors account for the limited job creation and hiring, and thus for low outflows from unemployment: a) The unfriendly business environment, reflected by a low rate of new firm formation, and a relatively small, small and medium enterprise sector. b) Labor market rigidities, including excessive hiring and firing costs. c) Skill and spatial mismatches brought about by enterprise restructuring, as well as low skills and marginalization of the long-term unemployed who cannot successfully compete for new jobs. The author recommends a three pronged strategy to improve labor market performance: (1) removing bureaucratic constraints to entry and expansion of firms; (2) enhancing labor market flexibility through lowering hiring and firing costs; and (3) improving the educational system so as to equip workers with broad and portable skills.
|Date of creation:||30 Apr 2003|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: |
Phone: (202) 477-1234
Web page: http://www.worldbank.org/
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Faggio, Giulia & Konings, Jozef, 1999. "Gross Job Flows and Firm Growth in Transition Countries: Evidence Using Firm Level Data on Five Countries," CEPR Discussion Papers 2261, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Abraham, Katharine G. & Katz, Lawrence F., 1986.
"Cyclical Unemployment: Sectoral Shifts or Aggregate Disturbances?,"
3442781, Harvard University Department of Economics.
- Abraham, Katharine G & Katz, Lawrence F, 1986. "Cyclical Unemployment: Sectoral Shifts or Aggregate Disturbances?," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 94(3), pages 507-22, June.
- Katharine G. Abraham & Lawrence F. Katz, 1984. "Cyclical Unemployment: Sectoral Shifts or Aggregate Disturbances?," NBER Working Papers 1410, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Bell, Una Louise, 2001. "Labour reallocation during transition: the case of Poland," ZEW Discussion Papers 01-38, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
- Lilien, David M, 1982. "Sectoral Shifts and Cyclical Unemployment," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 90(4), pages 777-93, August.
- Beck, Thorsten & Demirguc-Kunt, Asli & Maksimovic, Vojislav, 2002. "Financial and legal constraints to firm growth - Does size matter?," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2784, The World Bank.
- World Bank, 2002. "Bulgaria : Poverty Assessment," World Bank Other Operational Studies 13868, The World Bank.
- World Bank, 2001. "Poland's Labor Market : The Challenge of Job Creation," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 13982, September.
- Rutkowski, Jan J., 1999. "Labor markets and poverty in Bulgaria," Social Protection Discussion Papers 20817, The World Bank.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:3017. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Roula I. Yazigi)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.