IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/wbk/wbrwps/2933.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Small and medium size enterprise financing in Eastern Europe

Author

Listed:
  • Klapper, Leora
  • Sarria-Allende, Virginia
  • Sulla, Victor

Abstract

There is currently a large interest in understanding firms'access to finance, particularly in the financing of small- and medium-size enterprises (SMEs). But the financing patterns of SMEs across countries is not well understood. For example, little is known about the relative importance of equity, debt, and inter-firm financing for SMEs across countries. The authors use the Amadeus database, which includes financial information on over 97,000 private and publicly traded firms in 15 Eastern and Central European countries. The Amadeus database allows the authors the opportunity to provide a new analysis of the general financing patterns of private firms across a large sample of Eastern European countries. The summary statistics show that the size of the SME sector (as measured by the percentage of total employment) in Eastern European countries is smaller than in most developed economies. Although the authors find in almost every country in the sample a large number of SMEs as a percentage of total firms, the SMEs in Eastern Europe are generally small and hire few employees. However, SMEs seem to constitute the most dynamic sector of the Eastern European economies, relative to large firms. In general, the SME sector comprises relatively younger, more highly leveraged, and more profitable and faster growing firms. This suggests that a new type of firm is emerging in transition economies that is more market- and profit-oriented. But at the same time, these firms appear to have financial constraints that impede their access to long-term financing and ability to grow.

Suggested Citation

  • Klapper, Leora & Sarria-Allende, Virginia & Sulla, Victor, 2002. "Small and medium size enterprise financing in Eastern Europe," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2933, The World Bank.
  • Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:2933
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2003/01/07/000094946_02121304013466/Rendered/PDF/multi0page.pdf
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Acs, Zoltan J & Audretsch, David B, 1988. "Innovation in Large and Small Firms: An Empirical Analysis," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 78(4), pages 678-690, September.
    2. Petersen, Mitchell A & Rajan, Raghuram G, 1997. "Trade Credit: Theories and Evidence," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 10(3), pages 661-691.
    3. Rajan, Raghuram G & Zingales, Luigi, 1998. "Financial Dependence and Growth," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 88(3), pages 559-586, June.
    4. David B. Audretsch & A. Roy Thurik, 2000. "Capitalism and democracy in the 21st Century: from the managed to the entrepreneurial economy," Journal of Evolutionary Economics, Springer, vol. 10(1), pages 17-34.
    5. Berger, Allen N & Udell, Gregory F, 1995. "Relationship Lending and Lines of Credit in Small Firm Finance," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 68(3), pages 351-381, July.
    6. Barth, James R.*Caprio,Gerard*Levine, Ross, 2001. "The regulation and supervision of banks around the world - a new database," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2588, The World Bank.
    7. Károly Fazekas, 1996. "Types of Microregions, Dispersion of Unemployment, and Local Employment Development in Hungary," Eastern European Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 34(3), pages 3-48, June.
    8. Daniel Gros & Marc Suhrcke, 2000. "Ten Years After: What is Special about Transition Countries?," CESifo Working Paper Series 327, CESifo Group Munich.
    9. Laurence Booth, 2001. "Capital Structures in Developing Countries," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 56(1), pages 87-130, February.
    10. Beck, Thorsten & Demirguc-Kunt, Asli & Maksimovic, Vojislav, 2002. "Financial and legal constraints to firm growth - Does size matter?," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2784, The World Bank.
    11. Raymond Fisman & Inessa Love, 2003. "Trade Credit, Financial Intermediary Development, and Industry Growth," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 58(1), pages 353-374, February.
    12. Demirguc-Kunt, Asli & Maksimovic, Vojislav, 2001. "Firms as financial intermediaries - evidence from trade credit data," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2696, The World Bank.
    13. Titman, Sheridan & Wessels, Roberto, 1988. " The Determinants of Capital Structure Choice," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 43(1), pages 1-19, March.
    14. Clarke, George R. G. & Cull, Robert & Martinez Peria, Maria Soledad, 2001. "Does foreign bank penetration reduce access to credit in developing countries"evidence from asking borrowers," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2716, The World Bank.
    15. Demirguc-Kunt, Asli & Maksimovic, Vojislav, 1999. "Institutions, financial markets, and firm debt maturity," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 54(3), pages 295-336, December.
    16. Saito, Katrine Anderson & Villanueva, Delano P, 1981. "Transaction Costs of Credit to the Small-Scale Sector in the Philippines," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 29(3), pages 631-640, April.
    17. Cressy, Robert & Olofsson, Christer, 1997. "European SME Financing: An Overview," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 9(2), pages 87-96, April.
    18. Jan Svejnar, 2002. "Transition Economies: Performance and Challenges," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 16(1), pages 3-28, Winter.
    19. Köke, Jens & Salem, Tanja, 2000. "Corporate finance and restructuring: evidence from Central and Eastern Europe," ZEW Discussion Papers 00-21, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
    20. Chaves, R.A. & Sanchez, S. & Schor, S. & Tesliuc, E., 2001. "Financial Markets, Credit Constraints, and Investment in Rural Romania," Papers 499, World Bank - Technical Papers.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. R.T.A. de Haas & H.M.M. Peeters, 2004. "Firms' Dynamic Adjustment to Target Capital Structures in Transition Economies," Finance 0405014, EconWPA.
    2. Karin Joeveer, 2006. "Sources of Capital Structure: Evidence from Transition Countries," CERGE-EI Working Papers wp306, The Center for Economic Research and Graduate Education - Economics Institute, Prague.
    3. Eugene Nivorozhkin, 2004. "The Dynamics of Capital Structure in Transition Economies," Economic Change and Restructuring, Springer, vol. 37(1), pages 25-45, March.
    4. Blandina Oliveira & Adelino Fortunato, 2006. "Firm Growth and Liquidity Constraints: A Dynamic Analysis," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 27(2), pages 139-156, October.
    5. Ralph de Haas & Marga Peeters, 2004. "The Dynamic Adjustment towards Target capital Structures of Firms in," DNB Staff Reports (discontinued) 123, Netherlands Central Bank.
    6. Love, Inessa & Martinez Peria, Maria Soledad, 2005. "Firm financing in India : recent trends and patterns," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3476, The World Bank.
    7. László Szerb & Gábor Rappai & Zsolt Makra & Siri Terjesen, 2007. "Informal Investment in Transition Economies: Individual Characteristics and Clusters," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 28(2), pages 257-271, March.
    8. Owolabi, Oluwarotimi & Pal, Sarmistha, 2011. "The Value of Business Networks in Emerging Economies: An Analysis of Firms' External Financing Opportunities," IZA Discussion Papers 5738, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    9. John Hutchinson & Ana Xavier, 2006. "Comparing the Impact of Credit Constraints on the Growth of SMEs in a Transition Country with an Established Market Economy," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 27(2), pages 169-179, October.
    10. Gianni De Nicolo & Sami Geadah & Dmitriy L Rozhkov, 2003. "Financial Development in the CIS-7 Countries; Bridging the Great Divide," IMF Working Papers 03/205, International Monetary Fund.
    11. Jõeveer, Karin, 2013. "Firm, country and macroeconomic determinants of capital structure: Evidence from transition economies," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 41(1), pages 294-308.
    12. Tuuli Koivu & Pekka Sutela, 2005. "Financial Systems in Transition: Could Small Actually Be Beautiful?," Eastern Economic Journal, Eastern Economic Association, vol. 31(2), pages 265-283, Spring.
    13. Janda, Karel & Moreira, David, 2016. "Predicting bankruptcy in European e-commerce sector," MPRA Paper 74460, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    14. Knill, April M., 2008. "Does foreign portfolio investment reach small listed firms ?," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3796, The World Bank.
    15. Hall, Thomas W., 2012. "The collateral channel: Evidence on leverage and asset tangibility," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 18(3), pages 570-583.
    16. Ruta Aidis & Saul Estrin, 2006. "Institutions, Networks and Entrepreneurship Development in Russia: An Exploration," William Davidson Institute Working Papers Series wp833, William Davidson Institute at the University of Michigan.
    17. Oluwarotimi Owolabi & Sarmistha Pal, 2009. "The Value of Business Networks; an Analysis of Firm Financing in Transition Economies," CEDI Discussion Paper Series 09-01, Centre for Economic Development and Institutions(CEDI), Brunel University.

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:2933. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Roula I. Yazigi). General contact details of provider: http://edirc.repec.org/data/dvewbus.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.