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A firm-level analysis of small and medium size enterprise financing in Poland

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  • Klapper, Leora
  • Sarria-Allende, Virginia
  • Zaidi, Rida

Abstract

The authors test competing theories of capital structure choices using firm-level data on firm borrowings. The majority of firms in the dataset are privately owned, young, micro or small and medium enterprise (SME) firms concentrated in the service sector. In general, the financing pattern of firms is low leverage ratios and, in particular, low levels of intermediated financing and long-term financing. Average firm growth rates decreased during the five years of the sample period. Average profitability growth ratios are also negative across age and sectors and large firms have the highest negative profit growth rates. Statistical tests find a positive firm size effect on financial intermediation. Larger firms have higher leverage ratios (both short term and long term), including higher use of trade credit. There is also a negative influence of profitability on leverage ratios (more profitable firms use less external financing), which supports the"pecking order"theory that in environments with greater asymmetric information (such as weaker credit information) firms prefer to use internal or inter-firm financing. Finally, firms operating in a competitive environment have higher leverage ratios. For instance, young, small firms are the most active employment generators in the Polish economy. In particular, the authors find that although SMEs seem to be very active in creating jobs in recent years. This suggests that a new type of firm is emerging that is more market and profit-oriented. But at the same time, these firms appear to have financial constraints that impede their growth. Improvements in the business environment, such as better credit and registry information, could help promote growth in this sector.

Suggested Citation

  • Klapper, Leora & Sarria-Allende, Virginia & Zaidi, Rida, 2006. "A firm-level analysis of small and medium size enterprise financing in Poland," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3984, The World Bank.
  • Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:3984
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    1. Vladimirov, Zhelyu & Simeonova-Ganeva, Ralitsa & Ganev, Kaloyan, 2012. "Interaction of leading and supporting factors for the SME competitiveness," MPRA Paper 37251, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    2. Mateev, Miroslav & Poutziouris, Panikkos & Ivanov, Konstantin, 2013. "On the determinants of SME capital structure in Central and Eastern Europe: A dynamic panel analysis," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 27(1), pages 28-51.
    3. Fabbri, Daniela & Klapper, Leora F., 2016. "Bargaining power and trade credit," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 41(C), pages 66-80.
    4. Fidrmuc, Jarko & Hainz, Christa, 2010. "Default rates in the loan market for SMEs: Evidence from Slovakia," Economic Systems, Elsevier, vol. 34(2), pages 133-147, June.
    5. Claude Berthomieu & Anastasia Ri, 2009. "Process and Effects of Financial Liberalization in Transition Countries: A Selective Literature Survey," Panoeconomicus, Savez ekonomista Vojvodine, Novi Sad, Serbia, vol. 56(4), pages 453-473, December.
    6. Natalia Szomko, 2020. "Factors Associated with the Capital Structure of Polish Companies in the Long and Short Term," Gospodarka Narodowa. The Polish Journal of Economics, Warsaw School of Economics, issue 1, pages 55-74.
    7. Julia Hirsch & Uwe Walz, 2009. "Financing Decisions Along a Firm’s Life Cycle: Debt as a Commitment Device," Working Papers 0409, Universidad Iberoamericana, Department of Economics.
    8. Vladimirov, Zhelyu & Simeonova-Ganeva, Ralitsa & Ganev, Kaloyan, 2013. "Significance of globalization-specific factors for SME competitiveness: a conceptual model and an empirical test," MPRA Paper 63518, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    9. Natalia Szomko, 2017. "The Importance of Estimation Method Choice for the Analysis of the Determinants of Capital Structure– An Example of Poland," World Journal of Applied Economics, WERI-World Economic Research Institute, vol. 3(1), pages 3-20, June.
    10. Jun Du & Alessandra Guariglia & Alexander Newman, 2015. "Do Social Capital Building Strategies Influence the Financing Behavior of Chinese Private Small and Medium–Sized Enterprises?," Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, , vol. 39(3), pages 601-631, May.

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    Keywords

    Small Scale Enterprise; Microfinance; Economic Theory&Research; Investment and Investment Climate; Financial Intermediation;

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