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Determinants of capital structure - Evidence from Shari'ah compliant and non-compliant firms

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  • Yildirim, Ramazan
  • Masih, Mansur
  • Bacha, Obiyathulla

Abstract

Many Muslim individual and institutional investors seek to invest only in stocks that are compliant with the Shari'ah (i.e. Islamic law). Among others, Dow Jones addressed this demand and has developed their proprietary screening methodologies to identify Shari'ah compliant firms (SC). One key factor that distinguishes SC firms from their non compliant peers (SNC) is that the former is not allowed to cross the leverage threshold of 33%. Due to the restrictions imposed on them, it is expected that SC firms exhibit different capital structure compared to the SNC firms. The purpose of this initial comparative study is to analyze the most reliable debt determinants identified in the literature on both firm types. This study utilizes static panel data techniques on the sample consisting of SC and SNC firms from 7 countries and 7 industries over the years 2004–2014. Our study is inconclusive and it shows that most of the determinants do exhibit different effects among both firm types. Depending on the leverage measure, the effect of different independent variables on firms' capital structure varies. A uniform effect can be exerted for debt determinants profitability for both leverage measures, and growth opportunities, firm size and tangibility for market leverage only. Our robustness tests reveal that the impact of some debt determinants on firms leverage remains consistent. The coefficient sign and significance suggests, that the capital structure decision of both firm types, both are better explained by the Pecking Order Theory for book and by the Trade-Off Theory for market leverage, respectively.

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  • Yildirim, Ramazan & Masih, Mansur & Bacha, Obiyathulla, 2017. "Determinants of capital structure - Evidence from Shari'ah compliant and non-compliant firms," MPRA Paper 90280, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 26 May 2018.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:90280
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    Cited by:

    1. Jing Du & Hongyue Wu & Ruoyu Jin, 2019. "Capital Structure of Public–Private Partnership Projects: A Sustainability Perspective," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 11(13), pages 1-25, June.
    2. Alnori, Faisal & Alqahtani, Faisal, 2019. "Capital structure and speed of adjustment in non-financial firms: Does sharia compliance matter? Evidence from Saudi Arabia," Emerging Markets Review, Elsevier, vol. 39(C), pages 50-67.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Capital Structure; Leverage; Shariah Compliant; Shariah Screening; Trade-Off Theory; Pecking Order Theory;

    JEL classification:

    • C58 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric Modeling - - - Financial Econometrics
    • E44 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Money and Interest Rates - - - Financial Markets and the Macroeconomy
    • G15 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - International Financial Markets
    • G32 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Financing Policy; Financial Risk and Risk Management; Capital and Ownership Structure; Value of Firms; Goodwill

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