IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/hal/journl/halshs-00674250.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Ownership Structure and Debt Leverage: Empirical Test of a Trade-Off Hypothesis on French Firms

Author

Listed:
  • Hubert De La Bruslerie

    () (DRM - Dauphine Recherches en Management - Université Paris-Dauphine - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)

  • Imen Latrous

    () (Département de sciences économiques et administratives - UQAC - Université du Québec [Chicoutimi] - Département de sciences économiques et administratives)

Abstract

Debt may help to manage type II corporate agency conflicts because it is easier for controlling shareholders to modify the leverage ratio than to modify their share of capital. A sample of 112 firms listed on the French stock market over the period 1998-2009 is empirically tested. It supports an inverted U-shape relationship between shareholders' ownership and leverage. At low levels of ownership, controlling shareholders use more debt in order to inflate their stake in capital and to resist unfriendly takeovers attempts. When ownership reaches a certain point, controlling shareholders' objectives further converge with those of outside shareholders. Moreover, financial distress will prompt controlling shareholders to reduce the firm's leverage ratio. Empirically, it is shown that the inflection point where the sign of the relationship between ownership and debt changes is around 40%. Debts may help in curbing private appropriation and appears also as a governance variable.

Suggested Citation

  • Hubert De La Bruslerie & Imen Latrous, 2012. "Ownership Structure and Debt Leverage: Empirical Test of a Trade-Off Hypothesis on French Firms," Post-Print halshs-00674250, HAL.
  • Handle: RePEc:hal:journl:halshs-00674250
    Note: View the original document on HAL open archive server: https://halshs.archives-ouvertes.fr/halshs-00674250
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://halshs.archives-ouvertes.fr/halshs-00674250/document
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Paligorova, Teodora & Xu, Zhaoxia, 2012. "Complex ownership and capital structure," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 18(4), pages 701-716.
    2. Şenay Ağca & Sattar A. Mansi, 2008. "Managerial Ownership, Takeover Defenses, And Debt Financing," Journal of Financial Research, Southern Finance Association;Southwestern Finance Association, vol. 31(2), pages 85-112.
    3. Cronqvist, Henrik & Nilsson, Mattias, 2003. "Agency Costs of Controlling Minority Shareholders," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 38(04), pages 695-719, December.
    4. repec:hrv:faseco:30747191 is not listed on IDEAS
    5. La Porta, Rafael & Florencio Lopez-de-Silanes & Andrei Shleifer & Robert W. Vishny, 1997. " Legal Determinants of External Finance," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 52(3), pages 1131-1150, July.
    6. Berger, Philip G & Ofek, Eli & Yermack, David L, 1997. " Managerial Entrenchment and Capital Structure Decisions," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 52(4), pages 1411-1438, September.
    7. Jensen, Michael C. & Meckling, William H., 1976. "Theory of the firm: Managerial behavior, agency costs and ownership structure," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 3(4), pages 305-360, October.
    8. Bianco, Magda & Nicodano, Giovanna, 2006. "Pyramidal groups and debt," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 50(4), pages 937-961, May.
    9. Frank, Murray Z. & Goyal, Vidhan K., 2003. "Testing the pecking order theory of capital structure," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 67(2), pages 217-248, February.
    10. Leland, Hayne E & Pyle, David H, 1977. "Informational Asymmetries, Financial Structure, and Financial Intermediation," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 32(2), pages 371-387, May.
    11. Rafael La Porta & Florencio Lopez-De-Silanes & Andrei Shleifer, 1999. "Corporate Ownership Around the World," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 54(2), pages 471-517, April.
    12. King, Michael R. & Santor, Eric, 2008. "Family values: Ownership structure, performance and capital structure of Canadian firms," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 32(11), pages 2423-2432, November.
    13. Rafael La porta & Florencio Lopez-De-Silanes & Andrei Shleifer & Robert Vishny, 2002. "Investor Protection and Corporate Valuation," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 57(3), pages 1147-1170, June.
    14. Alves, Paulo F. Pereira & Ferreira, Miguel A., 2011. "Capital structure and law around the world," Journal of Multinational Financial Management, Elsevier, vol. 21(3), pages 119-150, July.
    15. Myers, Stewart C., 1977. "Determinants of corporate borrowing," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 5(2), pages 147-175, November.
    16. Agrawal, Anup & Mandelker, Gershon N, 1987. " Managerial Incentives and Corporate Investment and Financing Decision s," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 42(4), pages 823-837, September.
    17. Myers, Stewart C. & Majluf, Nicolás S., 1945-, 1984. "Corporate financing and investment decisions when firms have information that investors do not have," Working papers 1523-84., Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Sloan School of Management.
    18. Bhattacharya, Prasad S. & Graham, Michael A., 2009. "On institutional ownership and firm performance: A disaggregated view," Journal of Multinational Financial Management, Elsevier, vol. 19(5), pages 370-394, December.
    19. Friend, Irwin & Lang, Larry H P, 1988. " An Empirical Test of the Impact of Managerial Self-interest on Corporate Capital Structure," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 43(2), pages 271-281, June.
    20. repec:hrv:faseco:30728041 is not listed on IDEAS
    21. repec:hrv:faseco:30747162 is not listed on IDEAS
    22. Claessens, Stijn & Djankov, Simeon & Lang, Larry H. P., 2000. "The separation of ownership and control in East Asian Corporations," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 58(1-2), pages 81-112.
    23. Manos, Ronny & Murinde, Victor & Green, Christopher J., 2007. "Leverage and business groups: Evidence from Indian firms," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 59(5), pages 443-465.
    24. Harris, Milton & Raviv, Artur, 1988. "Corporate governance : Voting rights and majority rules," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 20(1-2), pages 203-235, January.
    25. Sabri Boubaker, 2007. "On the Relationship between Ownership-Control Structure and Debt Financing: New Evidence from France," Post-Print hal-01155601, HAL.
    26. Armo Gomes & Walter Novaes, 2001. "Sharing of Control as a Corporate Governance Mechanism," Penn CARESS Working Papers 3756d78204ca49d92aaf1c17c, Penn Economics Department.
    27. Timothy J. Brailsford & Barry R. Oliver & Sandra L. H. Pua, 2002. "On the relation between ownership structure and capital structure," Accounting and Finance, Accounting and Finance Association of Australia and New Zealand, vol. 42(1), pages 1-26.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Irene Wei Kiong Ting & Hooi Hooi Lean & Qian Long Kweh & Noor Azlinna Azizan, 2016. "Managerial overconfidence, government intervention and corporate financing decision," International Journal of Managerial Finance, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 12(1), pages 4-24, February.
    2. repec:prg:jnlpep:v:preprint:id:515:p:1-16 is not listed on IDEAS
    3. repec:eee:reveco:v:49:y:2017:i:c:p:370-385 is not listed on IDEAS
    4. repec:eee:riibaf:v:42:y:2017:i:c:p:710-726 is not listed on IDEAS
    5. repec:bla:ausecp:v:55:y:2016:i:4:p:319-344 is not listed on IDEAS
    6. Mário Santos & António Moreira & Elisabete Vieira, 2014. "Ownership concentration, contestability, family firms, and capital structure," Journal of Management & Governance, Springer;Accademia Italiana di Economia Aziendale (AIDEA), vol. 18(4), pages 1063-1107, November.
    7. Lo, Huai-Chun & Ting, Irene Wei Kiong & Kweh, Qian Long & Yang, Ming Jing, 2016. "Nonlinear association between ownership concentration and leverage: The role of family control," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 46(C), pages 113-123.
    8. Růčková Petra & Heryán Tomáš, 2015. "The Capital Structure Management in Companies of Selected Business Branches of Building in Conditions of the Czech Republic," Prague Economic Papers, University of Economics, Prague, vol. 2015(6), pages 699-714.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Corporate Governance; Private Benefits; Controlling Shareholders; Debt Leverage;

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:hal:journl:halshs-00674250. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (CCSD). General contact details of provider: https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/ .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.