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Targeting Youth Employment Policy in Bulgaria


  • Beleva, Iskra


Youth unemployment and in particular long-term youth unemployment in Bulgaria is much higher than the EU average. Low flows out of unemployment into a job, especially for the least educated and qualified young people residing in peripheral regions, are the principal source of long-term unemployment amongst young people. Evidence based on various data sources suggests on one hand that the most disadvantaged segments of the young population are left with two equally unsatisfactory alternatives: working in the informal sector and thus, in practice, often permanently withdrawing from the labour force, or emigrating. On the other hand, employment policies face significant financial and institutional constraints. Increasingly, with rising overall unemployment, passive policy is absorbing an increasing proportion of expenditure on labour market policy to the detriment of active policies. Moreover, important segments of young people are being bypassed by those active measures that do exist. An appropriate response requires action at the level of the education system as well as a more extensive and more effective active labour market policy. This paper concludes with some suggestions as to the way in which such policies might be developed.

Suggested Citation

  • Beleva, Iskra, 2001. "Targeting Youth Employment Policy in Bulgaria," MPRA Paper 60272, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:60272

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Pastore, Francesco, 2003. "A study of the regional distribution of unemployment in Poland's economic transition," Economics PhD Theses 0403, Department of Economics, University of Sussex.
    2. World Bank, 2001. "Bulgaria : The Dual Challenge of Transition and Accession," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 13958.
    3. Beleva, Iskra & Tzanov, Vasil & Noncheva, Teodora & Zareva, Iren, 1999. "Background Study on Labour Market and Employment in Bulgaria," MPRA Paper 47843, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    4. O'Higgins, Niall, 2001. "Youth unemployment and employment policy: a global perspective," MPRA Paper 23698, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    5. I Beleva & Richard Jackman & M Nenova-Amar, 1995. "The Labour Market in Bulgaria," CEP Discussion Papers dp0268, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
    6. Fretwell, David H. & Benus, Jacob & O'Leary, Christopher J., 1999. "Evaluating the impact of active labor programs : results of cross country studies in Europe and Central Asia," Social Protection and Labor Policy and Technical Notes 20131, The World Bank.
    7. Pietro Garibaldi & Mattia Makovec & Gabriella Stoyanova, 2001. "From Transition to EU Accession : The Bulgarian Labor Market during the 1990s," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 13946.
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    Cited by:

    1. Francesco Pastore, 2009. "School-to-Work Transitions in Mongolia," European Journal of Comparative Economics, Cattaneo University (LIUC), vol. 6(2), pages 245-264, December.
    2. World Bank, 2002. "Bulgaria : Poverty Assessment," World Bank Other Operational Studies 13868, The World Bank.
    3. Floro Ernesto Caroleo & Francesco Pastore, 2009. "Le cause del(l') (in)successo lavorativo dei giovani," Economia & lavoro, Carocci editore, issue 3, pages 107-107.
    4. Pastore, Francesco, 2007. "Employment and Education Policy for Young People in the EU: What Can New Member States Learn from Old Member States?," IZA Discussion Papers 3209, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    5. Pastore, Francesco, 2005. "To Study or to Work? Education and Labour Market Participation of Young People in Poland," IZA Discussion Papers 1793, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    6. repec:ilo:ilowps:423895 is not listed on IDEAS
    7. World Bank, 2002. "Bulgaria : A Changing Poverty Profile," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 13971.
    8. Niall O’Higgins, 2004. "Recent Trends in Youth Labour Markets and Youth Employment Policy in Europe and Central Asia," CELPE Discussion Papers 85, CELPE - Centre of Labour Economics and Economic Policy, University of Salerno, Italy.

    More about this item


    Youth unemployment; Active labour market policy; Economic transition;

    JEL classification:

    • I28 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Government Policy
    • J68 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Mobility, Unemployment, Vacancies, and Immigrant Workers - - - Public Policy
    • P41 - Economic Systems - - Other Economic Systems - - - Planning, Coordination, and Reform


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