New Evidence on Gender Difference in Promotion Rates: An Empirical Analysis of a Sample of New Hires
Using a large sample of establishments drawn from the Multi-City Study of Urban Inequality (MCSUI) employer survey, we study gender differences in promotion rates and in the wage gains attached to promotions. Several unique features of our data distinguish our analysis from the previous literature on this topic. First, we have information on the wage increases attached to promotions, and relatively few studies on gender differences have considered promotions and wage increases together. Second, our data include job-specific worker performance ratings, allowing us to control for performance and ability more precisely than through commonly-used skill indicators such as educational attainment or tenure. Third, in addition to standard information on occupation and industry, we have data on a number of other firm characteristics, enabling us to control for these variables while still relying on a broad, representative sample, as opposed to a single firm or a similarly narrowly-defined population. Our results indicate that women have lower probabilities of promotion and expected promotion than do men but that there is essentially no gender difference in wage growth with or without promotions.
|Date of creation:||Jun 2006|
|Publication status:||published as Blau, Francine D. and Jed DeVaro. “New Evidence on Gender Differences in Promotion Rates: An Empirical Analysis of a Sample of New Hires." Industrial Relations (July 2007).|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue Cambridge, MA 02138, U.S.A.|
Web page: http://www.nber.org
More information through EDIRC
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Cabral, Robert & Ferber, Marianne A & Green, Carole A, 1981. "Men and Women in Fiduciary Institutions: A Study of Sex Differences in Career Development," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 63(4), pages 573-580, November.
- Pekkarinen, Tuomas & Vartiainen, Juhana, 2002.
"Gender Differences in Job Assignment and Promotion in a Complexity Ladder of Jobs,"
Working Paper Series
184, Trade Union Institute for Economic Research.
- Pekkarinen, Tuomas & Vartiainen, Juhana, 2004. "Gender Differences in Job Assignment and Promotion on a Complexity Ladder of Jobs," IZA Discussion Papers 1184, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Dan Bernhardt, 1995. "Strategic Promotion and Compensation," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 62(2), pages 315-339.
- Margaret A. Meyer, 1991. "Learning from Coarse Information: Biased Contests and Career Profiles," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 58(1), pages 15-41.
- Michael Ransom & Ronald L. Oaxaca, 2005. "Intrafirm Mobility and Sex Differences in Pay," ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 58(2), pages 219-237, January.
- Ransom, Michael R. & Oaxaca, Ronald L., 2003. "Intrafirm Mobility and Sex Differences in Pay," IZA Discussion Papers 704, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Pablo Acosta, 2004. "Promotions, State Dependence and Intrafirm Job Mobility: Evidence From Personnel Records," Econometric Society 2004 North American Summer Meetings 585, Econometric Society.
- Oaxaca, Ronald, 1973. "Male-Female Wage Differentials in Urban Labor Markets," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 14(3), pages 693-709, October.
- Cobb-Clark, Deborah A., 2001. "Getting Ahead: The Determinants of and Payoffs to Internal Promotion for Young U.S. Men and Women," IZA Discussion Papers 288, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Becker, Gary S, 1985. "Human Capital, Effort, and the Sexual Division of Labor," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 3(1), pages 33-58, January.
- Prendergast, Canice, 1992. "Career development and specific human capital collection," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 6(3), pages 207-227, September.
- Stephen J. Spurr, 1990. "Sex Discrimination in the Legal Profession: A Study of Promotion," ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 43(4), pages 406-417, July.
- Kenneth Arrow, 1971. "The Theory of Discrimination," Working Papers 403, Princeton University, Department of Economics, Industrial Relations Section..
- Gregory B. Lewis, 1986. "Gender and Promotions: Promotion Chances of White Men and Women in Federal White-Collar Employment," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 21(3), pages 406-419.
- Lazear, Edward P & Rosen, Sherwin, 1990. "Male-Female Wage Differentials in Job Ladders," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 8(1), pages 106-123, January.
- Deborah Cobb-Clark, 2001. "Getting Ahead: The Determinants of Payoffs to Internal Promotion for Young U.S. Men and Women," CEPR Discussion Papers 430, Centre for Economic Policy Research, Research School of Economics, Australian National University.
- Laura Giuliano & David I. Levine & Jonathon Leonard, 2006. "An Analysis of Quits, Dismissals, and Promotions at a Large Retail Firm," Working Papers 0721, University of Miami, Department of Economics.
- Mareva Sabatier, 2010. "Do female researchers face a glass ceiling in France? A hazard model of promotions," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 42(16), pages 2053-2062.
- Mareva Sabatier, 2010. "Do Female Researchers Face a Glass Ceiling in France? A Hazard Model of Promotions," Post-Print hal-00825992, HAL.
- Kathy Cannings, 1988. "Managerial Promotion: The Effects of Socialization, Specialization, and Gender," ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 42(1), pages 77-88, October.
- Daniel Immergluck, 1996. "What employers want: Job prospects for less-educated workers," The Review of Black Political Economy, Springer;National Economic Association, vol. 24(4), pages 135-143, June.
- Phelps, Edmund S, 1972. "The Statistical Theory of Racism and Sexism," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 62(4), pages 659-661, September.
- Craig A. Olson & Brian E. Becker, 1983. "Sex Discrimination in the Promotion Process," ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 36(4), pages 624-641, July.
- Jed Devaro & Dana Brookshire, 2007. "Promotions and Incentives in Nonprofit and for-Profit Organizations," ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 60(3), pages 311-339, April.
- McCue, Kristin, 1996. "Promotions and Wage Growth," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 14(2), pages 175-209, April.
- Barbara F. Reskin & Denise D. Bielby, 2005. "A Sociological Perspective on Gender and Career Outcomes," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 19(1), pages 71-86, Winter.
- Winter-Ebmer, Rudolf & Zweimuller, Josef, 1997. "Unequal Assignment and Unequal Promotion in Job Ladders," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 15(1), pages 43-71, January.
- Booth, Alison L. & Francesconi, Marco & Frank, Jeff, 2003. "A sticky floors model of promotion, pay, and gender," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 47(2), pages 295-322, April.
- Randall W. Eberts & Joe A. Stone, 1985. "Male-Female Differences in Promotions: EEO in Public Education," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 20(4), pages 504-521. Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)