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Getting Ahead: The Determinants of and Payoffs to Internal Promotion for Young U.S. Men and Women

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  • Cobb-Clark, Deborah A.

    () (University of Sydney)

Abstract

Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, this paper examines the role of gender in the promotion process and the importance of promotions in the relative labor market outcomes of young men and women in their early careers. Specifically, how do the factors related to promotion differ for men and women? How do gender differences in promotion translate into differences in subsequent wage growth? To what extent does the promotions gap contribute to the gender wage gap? In answering these questions, alternative definitions of "promotion" will be considered. Getting ahead matters - particularly for women. The results indicate that women are less likely to be promoted. This gender gap in promotions - the magnitude of which depends on the measure of promotion considered - is explained by differences in the returns to characteristics. Had men and women in our sample faced the same promotion standard, promotion rates would have been higher for women than for men. Furthermore, the share of overall wage growth attributable to promotion is much larger for women than for men reflecting a bifurcation in outcomes between women who get ahead and women who get left behind. Eliminating gender differences in the determinants of and wage payoffs to promotion would contribute to a narrowing of the gender wage gap.

Suggested Citation

  • Cobb-Clark, Deborah A., 2001. "Getting Ahead: The Determinants of and Payoffs to Internal Promotion for Young U.S. Men and Women," IZA Discussion Papers 288, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  • Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp288
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    Cited by:

    1. Russo, Giovanni & Hassink, Wolter, 2011. "Multiple Glass Ceilings," IZA Discussion Papers 5828, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    2. David W. Johnston & Wang-Sheng Lee, 2012. "Climbing the Job Ladder: New Evidence of Gender Inequity," Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy and Society, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 51(1), pages 129-151, January.
    3. Nathalie Havet, 2006. "La valorisation salariale et professionnelle de la formation en entreprise diffère-t-elle selon le sexe ? L'exemple canadien," Économie et Prévision, Programme National Persée, vol. 175(4), pages 147-161.
    4. Margaret Yap, 2010. "Slicing and dicing the gender/racial earnings differentials," International Journal of Manpower, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 31(4), pages 466-488, July.
    5. Philippe Van Kerm, 2013. "Generalized measures of wage differentials," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 45(1), pages 465-482, August.
    6. Zheng Fang & Chris Sakellariou, 2015. "Glass Ceilings versus Sticky Floors: Evidence from Southeast Asia and an International Update," Asian Economic Journal, East Asian Economic Association, vol. 29(3), pages 215-242, September.
    7. Del Bono, Emilia & Vuri, Daniela, 2011. "Job mobility and the gender wage gap in Italy," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 18(1), pages 130-142, January.
    8. Mañé Vernet, Ferran & Benner, Chris, 2009. "Dead-End Jobs or Career Opportunities? Advancement opportunities in call centers," Working Papers 2072/42870, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Department of Economics.
    9. Havet, Nathalie, 2004. "Écarts salariaux et disparités professionnelles entre sexes : développements théoriques et validité empirique," L'Actualité Economique, Société Canadienne de Science Economique, vol. 80(1), pages 5-39, Mars.
    10. Alan Manning & Joanna Swaffield, 2008. "The gender gap in early-career wage growth," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 118(530), pages 983-1024, July.
    11. Francine D. Blau & Jed DeVaro, 2006. "New Evidence on Gender Differences in Promotion Rates: An Empirical Analysis of a Sample of New Hires," Working Papers 891, Princeton University, Department of Economics, Industrial Relations Section..
    12. Antti Kauhanen & Sami Napari, 2015. "Gender Differences in Careers," Annals of Economics and Statistics, GENES, issue 117-118, pages 61-88.
    13. Giovanni Russo & Wolter Hassink, 2012. "Multiple Glass Ceilings," Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy and Society, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 51(4), pages 892-915, October.
    14. Biewen, Martin & Seifert, Stefanie, 2016. "Potential Parenthood and Career Progression of Men and Women: A Simultaneous Hazards Approach," IZA Discussion Papers 10050, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    15. John T. Addison & Orgul Demet Ozturk & Si Wang, 2014. "The Role of Gender in Promotion and Pay over a Career," Journal of Human Capital, University of Chicago Press, vol. 8(3), pages 280-317.
    16. Booth, Alison L., 2009. "Gender and competition," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 16(6), pages 599-606, December.
    17. Shana Clor-Proell & Steven Kaplan & Chad Proell, 2015. "The Impact of Budget Goal Difficulty and Promotion Availability on Employee Fraud," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 131(4), pages 773-790, November.
    18. Cassidy, Hugh & DeVaro, Jed & Kauhanen, Antti, 2016. "Promotion signaling, gender, and turnover: New theory and evidence," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 126(PA), pages 140-166.
    19. Empar Pons Blasco & Luisa Escriche Bertolín, 2009. "Who moves up the career ladder? A model of gender differences in job promotion," Working Papers. Serie AD 2009-23, Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Económicas, S.A. (Ivie).

    More about this item

    Keywords

    gender; wage growth; Promotion;

    JEL classification:

    • J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination
    • J24 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Human Capital; Skills; Occupational Choice; Labor Productivity
    • J62 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Mobility, Unemployment, Vacancies, and Immigrant Workers - - - Job, Occupational and Intergenerational Mobility; Promotion

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