Gender differences in career progression: Does the effect of children capture low work effort?
This study exploits longitudinal employer-employee matched data to investigate gender differences in the probability to climb the job ladder with focus on the effect of children. We attempt to disentangle whether children directly affect promotions, or whether the effect of children is correlated with effort. We find that the probability to progress on the career ladder is decreased for women through children, but not for men. These effects are particularly strong at the lower and medium ranks. We explore whether the effect of children is correlated with several proxies of work effort including whether workers are highly attached or not, hours of work,\ and relative bonus payments. In promotion regressions controllling for these factors we find that the effects of children remain unchanged quantitatively as well qualitatively. If we compare workers with high effort levels above the 60th residual earnings percentile, we find large gender differences in promotion probabilities and it is men with 1-2 children who are most likely to be climb the career ladder.
|Date of creation:||2013|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Web page: http://www.socialpolitik.org/|
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Winter-Ebmer, Rudolf & Zweimuller, Josef, 1997. "Unequal Assignment and Unequal Promotion in Job Ladders," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 15(1), pages 43-71, January.
- James Albrecht & Anders Bjorklund & Susan Vroman, 2003.
"Is There a Glass Ceiling in Sweden?,"
Journal of Labor Economics,
University of Chicago Press, vol. 21(1), pages 145-177, January.
- David A. Matsa & Amalia R. Miller, 2013. "A Female Style in Corporate Leadership? Evidence from Quotas," American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, American Economic Association, vol. 5(3), pages 136-69, July.
- Hunnes, Arngrim & Møen, Jarle & Salvanes, Kjell G., 2005.
"Wage Structure and Labor Mobility in Norway 1980–1997,"
2005/3, Department of Business and Management Science, Norwegian School of Economics.
- Arngrim Hunnes & Jarle Møen & Kjell G. Salvanes, 2007. "Wage Structure and Labor Mobility in Norway 1980-1997," NBER Working Papers 12974, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Smith, Nina & Smith, Valdemar & Verner, Mette, 2010.
"The Gender Pay Gap in Top Corporate Jobs in Denmark: Glass Ceilings, Sticky Floors or Both?,"
IZA Discussion Papers
4848, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Nina Smith & Valdemar Smith & Mette Verne, 2011. "The gender pay gap in top corporate jobs in Denmark: Glass ceilings, sticky floors or both?," International Journal of Manpower, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 32(2), pages 156-177, May.
- Donna K. Ginther & Shulamit Kahn, 2006.
"Does Science Promote Women? Evidence from Academia 1973-2001,"
NBER Working Papers
12691, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Donna K. Ginther & Shulamit Kahn, 2009. "Does Science Promote Women? Evidence from Academia 1973-2001," NBER Chapters, in: Science and Engineering Careers in the United States: An Analysis of Markets and Employment, pages 163-194 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Francesconi, Marco, 2001. " Determinants and Consequences of Promotions in Britain," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 63(3), pages 279-310, July.
- Groot, Wim & van den Brink, Henriette Maassen, 1996. "Glass ceilings or dead ends: Job promotion of men and women compared," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 53(2), pages 221-226, November.
- McCue, Kristin, 1996. "Promotions and Wage Growth," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 14(2), pages 175-209, April.
- Marianne Bertrand & Kevin F. Hallock, 2000.
"The Gender Gap in Top Corporate Jobs,"
NBER Working Papers
7931, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Muriel Niederle & Lise Vesterlund, 2005.
"Do Women Shy Away from Competition? Do Men Compete too Much?,"
04-030, Stanford Institute for Economic Policy Research.
- Muriel Niederle & Lise Vesterlund, 2007. "Do Women Shy Away from Competition? Do Men Compete Too Much?," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 122(3), pages 1067-1101, 08.
- Muriel Niederle & Lise Vesterlund, 2005. "Do Women Shy Away From Competition? Do Men Compete Too Much?," NBER Working Papers 11474, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Donna K. Ginther & Shulamit Kahn, 2004. "Women in Economics: Moving Up or Falling Off the Academic Career Ladder?," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 18(3), pages 193-214, Summer.
- Francine Blau & Jed DeVaro, 2006.
"New Evidence on Gender Differences in Promotion Rates: An Empirical Analysis of a Sample of New Hires,"
891, Princeton University, Department of Economics, Industrial Relations Section..
- Francine D. Blau & Jed DeVaro, 2006. "New Evidence on Gender Difference in Promotion Rates: An Empirical Analysis of a Sample of New Hires," NBER Working Papers 12321, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Becker, Gary S., 1971. "The Economics of Discrimination," University of Chicago Press Economics Books, University of Chicago Press, edition 2, number 9780226041162.
- Illoong Kwon & Eva Meyersson Milgrom, 2007. "Cohort Effects in Wages and Promotions," Discussion Papers 07-025, Stanford Institute for Economic Policy Research.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:zbw:vfsc13:79705. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (ZBW - German National Library of Economics)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.