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Does Science Promote Women? Evidence from Academia 1973-2001

Author

Listed:
  • Donna K. Ginther
  • Shulamit Kahn

Abstract

Many studies have shown that women are under-represented in tenured ranks in the sciences. We evaluate whether gender differences in the likelihood of obtaining a tenure track job, promotion to tenure, and promotion to full professor explain these facts using the 1973-2001 Survey of Doctorate Recipients. We find that women are less likely to take tenure track positions in science, but the gender gap is entirely explained by fertility decisions. We find that in science overall, there is no gender difference in promotion to tenure or full professor after controlling for demographic, family, employer and productivity covariates and that in many cases, there is no gender difference in promotion to tenure or full professor even without controlling for covariates. However, family characteristics have different impacts on women's and men's promotion probabilities. Single women do better at each stage than single men, although this might be due to selection. Children make it less likely that women in science will advance up the academic job ladder beyond their early post-doctorate years, while both marriage and children increase men's likelihood of advancing.

Suggested Citation

  • Donna K. Ginther & Shulamit Kahn, 2006. "Does Science Promote Women? Evidence from Academia 1973-2001," NBER Working Papers 12691, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  • Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:12691
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Preston, Anne E, 1994. "Why Have All the Women Gone? A Study of Exit of Women from the Science and Engineering Professions," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 84(5), pages 1446-1462, December.
    2. Kahn, Shulamit, 1993. "Gender Differences in Academic Career Paths of Economists," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 83(2), pages 52-56, May.
    3. Donna K. Ginther & Shulamit Kahn, 2004. "Women in Economics: Moving Up or Falling Off the Academic Career Ladder?," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 18(3), pages 193-214, Summer.
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    Cited by:

    1. Beaudry, Catherine & Larivière, Vincent, 2016. "Which gender gap? Factors affecting researchers’ scientific impact in science and medicine," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 45(9), pages 1790-1817.
    2. Kunze, Astrid, 2013. "Gender differences in career progression: Does the effect of children capture low work effort?," Annual Conference 2013 (Duesseldorf): Competition Policy and Regulation in a Global Economic Order 79705, Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association.
    3. Emilia Del Bono & Andrea Weber & Rudolf Winter-Ebmer, 2012. "Clash Of Career And Family: Fertility Decisions After Job Displacement," Journal of the European Economic Association, European Economic Association, vol. 10(4), pages 659-683, August.
    4. Zacchia, Giulia, 2016. "Segregation or homologation? Gender differences in recent Italian economic thought," MPRA Paper 72279, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    5. Aïcha Serghini Idrissi & Patricia Garcia-Prieto Sol, 2009. "Gendering models of leading academic performance (LAP): The role of social identity, prototypicality and social identity performance in female academic careers," Working Papers CEB 09-030.RS, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
    6. repec:spr:scient:v:103:y:2015:i:3:d:10.1007_s11192-015-1574-x is not listed on IDEAS
    7. Marianne Bertrand & Claudia Goldin & Lawrence F. Katz, 2009. "Dynamics of the Gender Gap for Young Professionals in the Corporate and Financial Sectors," NBER Working Papers 14681, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    8. Anne Winkler & Sharon Levin & Paula Stephan, 2010. "The diffusion of IT in higher education: publishing productivity of academic life scientists," Economics of Innovation and New Technology, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 19(5), pages 481-503.
    9. repec:eee:respol:v:46:y:2017:i:5:p:911-924 is not listed on IDEAS
    10. Natalia Zinovyeva & Manuel F. Bagues, 2010. "Does gender matter for academic promotion? Evidence from a randomized natural experiment," Working Papers 2010-15, FEDEA.
    11. repec:spr:scient:v:101:y:2014:i:1:d:10.1007_s11192-014-1327-2 is not listed on IDEAS
    12. repec:eee:ijrema:v:33:y:2016:i:4:p:818-839 is not listed on IDEAS
    13. repec:zbw:rwirep:0039 is not listed on IDEAS
    14. Emilia Del Bono & Andrea Weber & Rudolf Winter-Ebmer, 2008. "Clash of Career and Family - Fertility Decisions after Job Displacement," Ruhr Economic Papers 0039, Rheinisch-Westfälisches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Universität Dortmund, Universität Duisburg-Essen.
    15. Maria De Paola & Vincenzo Scoppa, 2011. "Gender Discrimination and Evaluators’ Gender: Evidence from the Italian Academy," Working Papers 201106, Università della Calabria, Dipartimento di Economia, Statistica e Finanza "Giovanni Anania" - DESF.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • J4 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Particular Labor Markets
    • J71 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Labor Discrimination - - - Hiring and Firing

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