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Gender Promotion Differences in Economics Departments in Japan: A Semi-parametric Duration Analysis

By using a unique data set of academic economists in Japanese universities, we conduct the first detailed study of gender differences in the duration of promotion within Japanese academia. We employ a duration model that simultaneously allows: a non-parametric estimation of the baseline hazard function; a non-parametric unobserved heterogeneity component; and the estimation of parameterized coefficients for the observed explanatory variables. Our results show that there are no gender promotion differences, after controlling for personal, job, institutional, human capital characteristics, and unobserved heterogeneity. Our results contrast with the results of previous studies which consistently report substantial gender promotion gaps within US and UK academia. We show that age and education are the most dominant determinants of the survival probability of promotion to full-professor, with minimal rewards given for higher research output. Although the effect of age is not large enough to warrant the conclusion that promotion within Japanese academia is automatically done based on age as it is commonly believed by Japanese academics, a heavy emphasis on objective factors such as age and education may be one reason for why there are no gender promotion differences.

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Paper provided by Research Institute, International University of Japan in its series Working Papers with number EMS_2009_09.

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Length: 45 pages
Date of creation: Apr 2009
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:iuj:wpaper:ems_2009_09
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  1. Han, Aaron & Hausman, Jerry A, 1990. "Flexible Parametric Estimation of Duration and Competing Risk Models," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 5(1), pages 1-28, January-M.
  2. Lundberg, Shelly J & Startz, Richard, 1983. "Private Discrimination and Social Intervention in Competitive Labor Markets," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 73(3), pages 340-47, June.
  3. Blackaby, David & Booth, Alison L & Frank, Jeff, 2002. "Outside Offers and the Gender Pay Gap: Empirical Evidence from the UK," CEPR Discussion Papers 3549, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  4. Kahn, Shulamit, 1993. "Gender Differences in Academic Career Paths of Economists," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 83(2), pages 52-56, May.
  5. Dennis J. Aigner & Glen G. Cain, 1977. "Statistical theories of discrimination in labor markets," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 30(2), pages 175-187, January.
  6. Black, Dan A, 1995. "Discrimination in an Equilibrium Search Model," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 13(2), pages 309-33, April.
  7. Booth, Alison & Jeff Frank & David Blackaby, 2003. "Outside Offers and the Gender Pay Gap: Empirical Evidence from the UK Academic Labour Market," Royal Economic Society Annual Conference 2003 28, Royal Economic Society.
  8. William J. Moore & Robert J. Newman & Dek Terrell, 2007. "Academic Pay in the United Kingdom and the United States: The Differential Returns to Productivity and the Lifetime Earnings Gap," Southern Economic Journal, Southern Economic Association, vol. 73(3), pages 717–732, January.
  9. Donna K. Ginther & Shulamit Kahn, 2004. "Women in Economics: Moving Up or Falling Off the Academic Career Ladder?," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 18(3), pages 193-214, Summer.
  10. Van W. Kolpin & Larry D & Singell & Jr, 1996. "The gender composition and scholarly performance of economics departments: A test for employment discrimination," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 49(3), pages 408-423, April.
  11. Ward, Melanie E, 2001. "Gender and Promotion in the Academic Profession," Scottish Journal of Political Economy, Scottish Economic Society, vol. 48(3), pages 283-302, August.
  12. Lazear, Edward P & Rosen, Sherwin, 1990. "Male-Female Wage Differentials in Job Ladders," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 8(1), pages S106-23, January.
  13. Broder, Ivy E, 1993. "Professional Achievements and Gender Differences among Academic Economists," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 31(1), pages 116-27, January.
  14. Van W. Kolpin & Larry D. Singell Jr., 1996. "The Gender Composition and Scholarly Performance of Economics Departments: A Test for Employment Discrimination," ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 49(3), pages 408-423, April.
  15. Winter-Ebmer, Rudolf & Zweimuller, Josef, 1997. "Unequal Assignment and Unequal Promotion in Job Ladders," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 15(1), pages 43-71, January.
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