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Écarts salariaux et disparités professionnelles entre sexes : développements théoriques et validité empirique

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  • Havet, Nathalie

    (CIRPÉE)

Abstract

This paper is a survey of economic theories that focus on the explanation of gender professionnal disparities. Starting from the first theories that were developed, two opposite branches emerge: a) models that relate differences to productivity differentials and b) theories of discrimination which attribute differences to either employers’ prejudices (i.e. “taste discrimination”) or imperfect information (i.e. “statistical discrimination”). However, all of these theories in their earliest version are not supported by empirical evidence. Consequently, models of second generation have been developed that go beyond the strict opposition betweeen productivity differentials and discrimination. For example, models of taste discrimination integrate henceforth the dynamic of job-search costs. Models of statistical discrimination obtain more convincing conclusions by being based on a more complex informational context and by introducing concepts of human capital theory. Cet article recense l’apport de la théorie économique dans la compréhension des causes des disparités professionnelles entre sexes. Parmi les premières théories développées, deux courants s’opposent : des modèles justifiant ces différences par des écarts de productivité et les théories de la discrimination qui les expliquent, soit par les préjugés des employeurs à l’encontre des femmes, il s’agit dans ce cas de discrimination par goût, soit par des imperfections d’informations, on parle alors de discrimination statistique. Or, ces théories dans leur version les plus simples se sont révélées peu convaincantes dans leur validité empirique. C’est pourquoi des modèles de discrimination de seconde génération ont été développés : ils dépassent l’opposition stricte entre différences de productivité et discrimination. Les modèles de discrimination par goût font désormais intervenir la dynamique des coûts reliés à la recherche d’emplois. Les modèles de discrimination statistique obtiennent quant à eux des conclusions plus convaincantes en se plaçant dans un contexte informationnel plus complexe et en y intégrant les concepts de la théorie du capital humain.

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  • Havet, Nathalie, 2004. "Écarts salariaux et disparités professionnelles entre sexes : développements théoriques et validité empirique," L'Actualité Economique, Société Canadienne de Science Economique, vol. 80(1), pages 5-39, Mars.
  • Handle: RePEc:ris:actuec:v:80:y:2004:i:1:p:5-39
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    Cited by:

    1. Magali Recoules, 2011. "How can gender discrimination explain fertility behaviors and family-friendly policies?," Université Paris1 Panthéon-Sorbonne (Post-Print and Working Papers) halshs-00675601, HAL.
    2. repec:hal:journl:halshs-00193372 is not listed on IDEAS
    3. Magali Recoules, 2011. "How can gender discrimination explain fertility behaviors and family-friendly policies?," Review of Economics of the Household, Springer, vol. 9(4), pages 505-521, December.
    4. Ilan Tojerow, 2008. "Industry Wage Differentials Rent Sharing and Gender in Belgium," Reflets et perspectives de la vie économique, De Boeck Université, vol. 0(3), pages 55-65.
    5. repec:hal:journl:halshs-00348904 is not listed on IDEAS
    6. Etoundi Atenga, Eric Martial & Chameni Nembua, Célestin & Meva Avoulou, Henri Joel, 2013. "Ecarts de salaire entre hommes et femmes au Cameroun : Discrimination ou Capital humain ? Une approche par sous groupes
      [Gender wage gap : Discrimination or Human Capital? A subgroup approach]
      ," MPRA Paper 64761, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised Aug 2014.

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