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Do Race, Age, and Gender Differences Affect Manager-Employee Relations? An Analysis of Quits, Dismissals, and Promotions at a Large Retail Firm

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  • Giuliano, Laura
  • Levine, David I.
  • Leonard, Jonathan

Abstract

Using data from a large U.S. retail firm, we examine how differences in race, age, and gender between a manager and a subordinate affect the subordinate’s rate of quits, dismissals, and promotions. We find that these demographic differences can have statistically significant and sometimes large effects on employment outcomes. This is especially true of differences in race and ethnicity, which consistently produce significant effects and which produce the largest effects. In general, demographic differences tend to produce adverse effects on employment outcomes (i.e., higher quit and dismissal rates, and lower promotion rates). But in three striking cases, where traditionally lower-status managers are supervising traditionally higher-status employees, differences produce favorable effects for employees.

Suggested Citation

  • Giuliano, Laura & Levine, David I. & Leonard, Jonathan, 2006. "Do Race, Age, and Gender Differences Affect Manager-Employee Relations? An Analysis of Quits, Dismissals, and Promotions at a Large Retail Firm," Institute for Research on Labor and Employment, Working Paper Series qt9tc8n5j7, Institute of Industrial Relations, UC Berkeley.
  • Handle: RePEc:cdl:indrel:qt9tc8n5j7
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    1. Kate Antonovics & Brian G. Knight, 2009. "A New Look at Racial Profiling: Evidence from the Boston Police Department," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 91(1), pages 163-177, February.
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    4. Michael A. Stoll & Steven Raphael & Harry J. Holzer, 2004. "Black Job Applicants and the Hiring Officer's Race," ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 57(2), pages 267-287, January.
    5. Thomas S. Dee, 2005. "A Teacher Like Me: Does Race, Ethnicity, or Gender Matter?," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 95(2), pages 158-165, May.
    6. Carrington, William J & Troske, Kenneth R, 1998. "Interfirm Segregation and the Black/White Wage Gap," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 16(2), pages 231-260, April.
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    Cited by:

    1. Laura Giuliano & David I. Levine & Jonathan Leonard, 2009. "Manager Race and the Race of New Hires," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 27(4), pages 589-631, October.
    2. Gerlach Knut & Hübler Olaf, 2009. "Employment Adjustments on the Internal and External Labour Market – An Empirical Study with Personnel Records of a German Company," Journal of Economics and Statistics (Jahrbuecher fuer Nationaloekonomie und Statistik), De Gruyter, vol. 229(2-3), pages 198-213, April.
    3. Devin G. Pope & Joseph Price & Justin Wolfers, 2013. "Awareness Reduces Racial Bias," NBER Working Papers 19765, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    4. David W. Johnston & Wang-Sheng Lee, 2012. "Climbing the Job Ladder: New Evidence of Gender Inequity," Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy and Society, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 51(1), pages 129-151, January.
    5. Oriana Bandiera & Iwan Barankay & Imran Rasul, 2009. "Social Connections and Incentives in the Workplace: Evidence From Personnel Data," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 77(4), pages 1047-1094, July.
    6. Roger Wilkins & Mark Wooden, 2011. "The Sources of Gender Differences in Rates of Job Dismissal," Melbourne Institute Working Paper Series wp2011n27, Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research, The University of Melbourne.
    7. Kunze, Astrid & Miller, Amalia, 2014. "Women Helping Women? Evidence from Private Sector Data on Workplace Hierarchies," IZA Discussion Papers 8725, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    8. Karin Halldén & Jenny Säve-Söderbergh & Asa Rosen, 2016. "Immediate Manager Gender and Female Wages - The Importance of Manager Position," CESifo Working Paper Series 5700, CESifo Group Munich.
    9. Takahashi, Shingo & Owan, Hideo & Tsuru, Tsuyoshi & Uehara, Katsuhito, 2014. "Multitasking Incentives and Biases in Subjective Performance Evaluation," Discussion Paper Series 614, Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi University.
    10. Wilkins, Roger & Wooden, Mark, 2011. "Gender Differences in Rates of Job Dismissal: Why Are Men More Likely to Lose Their Jobs?," IZA Discussion Papers 6225, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    11. Roger Wilkins & Mark Wooden, 2013. "Gender Differences in Involuntary Job Loss: Why Are Men More Likely to Lose Their Jobs?," Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy and Society, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 52(2), pages 582-608, April.
    12. Danilo Coelho & Marcelo Fernandes & Miguel Nathan Foguel, 2007. "Foreign Capital And Gender Differences In Promotions: Evidence From The Brazilian Transformation Industry," Anais do XXXV Encontro Nacional de Economia [Proceedings of the 35th Brazilian Economics Meeting] 167, ANPEC - Associação Nacional dos Centros de Pós-Graduação em Economia [Brazilian Association of Graduate Programs in Economics].
    13. Kurtulus, Fidan Ana & Tomaskovic-Devey, Donald, 2012. "Do Women Top Managers Help Women Advance? A Panel Study Using EEO-1 Records," IZA Discussion Papers 6444, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    14. Francine Blau & Jed DeVaro, 2006. "New Evidence on Gender Differences in Promotion Rates: An Empirical Analysis of a Sample of New Hires," Working Papers 891, Princeton University, Department of Economics, Industrial Relations Section..
    15. Empar Pons Blasco & Luisa Escriche Bertolín, 2009. "Who moves up the career ladder? A model of gender differences in job promotion," Working Papers. Serie AD 2009-23, Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Económicas, S.A. (Ivie).
    16. Fidan Ana Kurtulus & Donald Tomaskovic-Devey, 2011. "Do Women Top Managers Help Women Advance? A Panel Study Using EEO-1 Records," UMASS Amherst Economics Working Papers 2011-14, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Department of Economics.
    17. Haile, Getinet Astatike, 2012. "Unhappy working with men? Workplace gender diversity and job-related well-being in Britain," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 19(3), pages 329-350.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    J15; J16; J7; J59;

    JEL classification:

    • J15 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Minorities, Races, Indigenous Peoples, and Immigrants; Non-labor Discrimination
    • J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination
    • J7 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Labor Discrimination
    • J59 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Labor-Management Relations, Trade Unions, and Collective Bargaining - - - Other

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