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Adopting the euro in Hungary: expected costs, benefits and timing

Author

Listed:
  • Attila Csajbók (ed.)

    (Magyar Nemzeti Bank)

  • Ágnes Csermely (ed.)

    (Magyar Nemzeti Bank)

Abstract

Accession to the Economic and Monetary Union is one of the most important steps in Hungary's European integration, which will entail abandoning the national currency and adopting the euro as domestic legal tender. For Hungary as a new member state in the EU, introduction of the euro will not be an option but an obligation. Nevertheless, new EU members will have some leeway to set the date of adopting the euro1. Therefore, it is useful to analyse the likely costs and benefits of joining the euro area for Hungary and to define the choice of medium-term economic policy strategy in the light of the results of this analysis. The National Bank of Hungary would like to contribute to the formulation of an economic policy strategy by issuing this volume, which contains a cost-benefit analysis of the likely effects of the country's joining the euro area. This analysis is confined strictly to the economic benefits and costs of introducing the euro and is not intended to examine its other possible impacts, including, for example, the implications for politics and national security. Adopting the euro will likely have a permanent impact on Hungarian economic growth. This impact will become evident through numerous channels. Bank staff have attempted to quantify and sum up the extent of this impact transmitted through the various channels. The findings of this analysis suggest that the introduction of the euro will bring about significant net gains in growth. However, welfare is influenced not only by the level and rate of GDP growth, but their stability as well. A widely fluctuating national income will produce lower welfare than a more stable one, even if on average the two income levels are identical. For this reason, it is important to examine whether joining the euro area will increase or mitigate the volatility of business cycles. In other words, the key question is whether Hungary and the euro area form an optimum currency area, that is whether the monetary policy of the euro area is capable of adequately substituting independent Hungarian monetary policy in smoothing out cyclical fluctuations. In the findings of this analysis, the euro area seems to be in most respects at least as optimal a currency area for Hungary as for less developed euro area member countries.

Suggested Citation

  • Attila Csajbók (ed.) & Ágnes Csermely (ed.), 2002. "Adopting the euro in Hungary: expected costs, benefits and timing," MNB Occasional Papers 2002/24, Magyar Nemzeti Bank (Central Bank of Hungary).
  • Handle: RePEc:mnb:opaper:2002/24
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    4. Crespo Cuaresma, Jesus & Wojcik, Cezary, 2006. "Measuring monetary independence: Evidence from a group of new EU member countries," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(1), pages 24-43, March.
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    6. Brzoza-Brzezina, Michał & Makarski, Krzysztof & Wesołowski, Grzegorz, 2014. "Would it have paid to be in the eurozone?," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 41(C), pages 66-79.
    7. Gilson, Nathalie alias Natacha & Labondance, Fabien, 2013. "Synchronisation des chocs d’offre et de demande en Europe – Un après-euro ou une après-crise des subprimes ?," L'Actualité Economique, Société Canadienne de Science Economique, vol. 89(3), pages 155-189, Septembre.
    8. Hughes Hallett, Andrew & Lewis, John, 2007. "Debt, deficits, and the accession of the new member States to the Euro," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 23(2), pages 316-337, June.
    9. Ansgar Belke & Ralph Setzer, 2003. "Exchange Rate Volatility and Employment Growth: Empirical Evidence from the CEE Economies," CESifo Working Paper Series 1056, CESifo.
    10. Fidrmuc, Jarko & Korhonen, Iikka, 2006. "Meta-analysis of the business cycle correlation between the euro area and the CEECs," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(3), pages 518-537, September.
    11. Paul de Grauwe & Gunther Schnabl, 2004. "Nominal versus Real Convergence with Respect to EMU Accession.How to Cope with the Balassa-Samuelson Dilemma," EUI-RSCAS Working Papers 20, European University Institute (EUI), Robert Schuman Centre of Advanced Studies (RSCAS).
    12. Fidrmuc, Jarko & Korhonen, Iikka, 2004. "A meta-analysis of business cycle correlation between the euro area and CEECs : What do we know - and who cares?," BOFIT Discussion Papers 20/2004, Bank of Finland, Institute for Economies in Transition.
    13. Federico Ravenna & Fabio M. Natalucci, 2008. "Monetary Policy Choices in Emerging Market Economies: The Case of High Productivity Growth," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 40(2‐3), pages 243-271, March.
    14. Jarko Fidrmuc & Iikka Korhonen, 2004. "A Meta-Analysis of Business Cycle Correlations between the Euro Area, CEECs and SEECs – What Do We Know?," Focus on European Economic Integration, Oesterreichische Nationalbank (Austrian Central Bank), issue 2, pages 76-94.
    15. Coricelli, Fabrizio & Ercolani, Valerio, 2002. "Cyclical and Structural Deficits on the Road to Accession: Fiscal Rules for an Enlarged European Union," CEPR Discussion Papers 3672, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
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    More about this item

    Keywords

    currency union; convergence; monetary policy; fiscal policy.;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • E58 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit - - - Central Banks and Their Policies
    • E61 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Macroeconomic Policy, Macroeconomic Aspects of Public Finance, and General Outlook - - - Policy Objectives; Policy Designs and Consistency; Policy Coordination
    • E62 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Macroeconomic Policy, Macroeconomic Aspects of Public Finance, and General Outlook - - - Fiscal Policy
    • F4 - International Economics - - Macroeconomic Aspects of International Trade and Finance

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