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Arab Spring Protests and Women’s Labor Market Outcomes: Evidence from the Egyptian Revolution

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  • Nelly El-Mallakh

    (Centre d’Economie de la Sorbonne, Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne)

  • Mathilde Maurel
  • Biagio Speciale

Abstract

We analyze the effects of the 2011 Egyptian protests on the relative labor market conditions of women using panel information from the Egypt Labor Market Panel Survey (ELMPS). We construct our measure of intensity of the protests – the governorate-level number of “martyrs” (i.e., demonstrators who died during the protests) - using unique information from the Statistical Database of the Egyptian Revolution. We find that the 2011 protests have reduced the gender gap in labor force participation by increasing women’s unemployment and private sector employment. The political change has mostly affected the relative labor market outcomes of women in households at the bottom of the pre-revolution income distribution. We link these findings to the literature showing how a relevant shock to the labor division between women and men may have long run consequences on the role of women in society.

Suggested Citation

  • Nelly El-Mallakh & Mathilde Maurel & Biagio Speciale, 2015. "Arab Spring Protests and Women’s Labor Market Outcomes: Evidence from the Egyptian Revolution," Working Papers 957, Economic Research Forum, revised Oct 2015.
  • Handle: RePEc:erg:wpaper:957
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    3. Nelly El-Mallakh, 2017. "Did the Egyptian protests lead to change? Evidence from Egypt's first free Presidential elections," Université Paris1 Panthéon-Sorbonne (Post-Print and Working Papers) halshs-01625199, HAL.
    4. Bargain, Olivier & Boutin, Delphine & Champeaux, Hugues, 2019. "Women's political participation and intrahousehold empowerment: Evidence from the Egyptian Arab Spring," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 141(C).
    5. Liu, Jenny & Modrek, Sepideh & Sieverding, Maia, 2019. "The effects of political protests on youth human capital and well-being in Egypt," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 243(C).
    6. Tchai Tavor & Limor Dina Gonen & Uriel Spiegel, 2022. "The Double-Peaked Shape of the Laffer Curve in the Case of the Inverted S-Shaped Labor Supply Curve," Mathematics, MDPI, vol. 10(6), pages 1-19, March.
    7. Pascal L. Ghazalian, 2022. "The effects of the Arab Spring on female labour force participation in the MENA region," Economics of Transition and Institutional Change, John Wiley & Sons, vol. 30(4), pages 869-900, October.
    8. Elmallakh, Nelly & Wodon, Quentin, 2021. "Climate Shocks, Migration, and Labor Markets: A Gender Analysis from West Africa," GLO Discussion Paper Series 950, Global Labor Organization (GLO).
    9. Yvonne Giesing & Reem Hassan, 2021. "Between Hope and Despair: Egypt's Revolution and Migration Intentions," CESifo Working Paper Series 9237, CESifo.
    10. El-Mallakh, Nelly, 2020. "How do protests affect electoral choices? Evidence from Egypt," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 179(C), pages 299-322.
    11. Bilal El Rafhi & Alexandre Volle, 2020. "The Effect of the Arab Spring on Preferences for Redistribution in Egypt," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 66(4), pages 875-903, December.
    12. Laura E. Henkhaus, 2022. "The lasting consequences of childhood sexual abuse on human capital and economic well‐being," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 31(9), pages 1954-1972, September.
    13. El-Mallakh,Nelly, 2020. "Internet Job Search, Employment, and Wage Growth : Evidence from the Arab Republic of Egypt," Policy Research Working Paper Series 9196, The World Bank.
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    • J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination
    • J21 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Labor Force and Employment, Size, and Structure
    • J22 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Time Allocation and Labor Supply
    • J30 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs - - - General

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