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Arab spring protests and women's labor market outcomes: Evidence from the Egyptian revolution

Author

Listed:
  • Nelly El-Mallakh

    (Cairo University)

  • Mathilde Maurel

    (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, FERDI - Fondation pour les Etudes et Recherches sur le Développement International)

  • Biagio Speciale

    (PSE - Paris School of Economics - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - ENS-PSL - École normale supérieure - Paris - PSL - Université Paris Sciences et Lettres - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement, PJSE - Paris Jourdan Sciences Economiques - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - ENS-PSL - École normale supérieure - Paris - PSL - Université Paris Sciences et Lettres - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)

Abstract

We analyze the effects of the 2011 Egyptian protests on the relative labor market conditions of women using panel data from the Egypt Labor Market Panel Survey (ELMPS). Using unique information from the Statistical Database of the Egyptian Revolution, we geocode each "martyr", i.e. demonstrators who died during the protests, based on the location of the political incident. We construct our measure of the intensity of the protests – the district-level number of "martyrs" – and rely on a Difference-in-Differences approach. We find that the 2011 protests have reduced intra-household differences in labor force participation by increasing women's employment and unemployment relative to men. Women's employment relative to men increased in both the private and informal sectors. Our estimates suggest how economic uncertainty such as the one associated to the recent protests may undermine the importance of cultural factors and attitudes towards female work. We link these findings to the literature showing how a relevant shock to the labor division between women and men may have long run consequences on the role of women in society.

Suggested Citation

  • Nelly El-Mallakh & Mathilde Maurel & Biagio Speciale, 2018. "Arab spring protests and women's labor market outcomes: Evidence from the Egyptian revolution," Université Paris1 Panthéon-Sorbonne (Post-Print and Working Papers) halshs-01802873, HAL.
  • Handle: RePEc:hal:cesptp:halshs-01802873
    DOI: 10.1016/j.jce.2017.12.004
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    3. Nelly El-Mallakh, 2017. "Did the Egyptian protests lead to change? Evidence from Egypt's first free Presidential elections," Université Paris1 Panthéon-Sorbonne (Post-Print and Working Papers) halshs-01625199, HAL.
    4. Tchai Tavor & Limor Dina Gonen & Uriel Spiegel, 2022. "The Double-Peaked Shape of the Laffer Curve in the Case of the Inverted S-Shaped Labor Supply Curve," Mathematics, MDPI, vol. 10(6), pages 1-19, March.
    5. Elmallakh, Nelly & Wodon, Quentin, 2021. "Climate Shocks, Migration, and Labor Markets: A Gender Analysis from West Africa," GLO Discussion Paper Series 950, Global Labor Organization (GLO).
    6. Yvonne Giesing & Reem Hassan, 2021. "Between Hope and Despair: Egypt's Revolution and Migration Intentions," CESifo Working Paper Series 9237, CESifo.
    7. El-Mallakh, Nelly, 2020. "How do protests affect electoral choices? Evidence from Egypt," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 179(C), pages 299-322.
    8. Bilal El Rafhi & Alexandre Volle, 2020. "The Effect of the Arab Spring on Preferences for Redistribution in Egypt," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 66(4), pages 875-903, December.
    9. Liu, Jenny & Modrek, Sepideh & Sieverding, Maia, 2019. "The effects of political protests on youth human capital and well-being in Egypt," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 243(C).
    10. Pascal L. Ghazalian, 2022. "The effects of the Arab Spring on female labour force participation in the MENA region," Economics of Transition and Institutional Change, John Wiley & Sons, vol. 30(4), pages 869-900, October.
    11. Samia Ferhat & Rozenn Hotte & Philip Verwimp, 2022. "Entry into Marriage, Motherhood and the Arab Spring: Evidence from Egypt," Working Papers ECARES 2022-16, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
    12. Thibault Lemaire, 2020. "Phillips in A Revolution: Unemployment and Prices in Early 21st Century Egypt," Working Papers hal-03948605, HAL.
    13. Laura E. Henkhaus, 2022. "The lasting consequences of childhood sexual abuse on human capital and economic well‐being," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 31(9), pages 1954-1972, September.
    14. El-Mallakh,Nelly, 2020. "Internet Job Search, Employment, and Wage Growth : Evidence from the Arab Republic of Egypt," Policy Research Working Paper Series 9196, The World Bank.
    15. Rudolf, Robert & Wang, Shun & Wu, Fengyu, 2023. "The Arab Spring, a setback for gender equality? Evidence from the Gallup World Poll," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 84(C).
    16. Bargain, Olivier & Boutin, Delphine & Champeaux, Hugues, 2019. "Women's political participation and intrahousehold empowerment: Evidence from the Egyptian Arab Spring," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 141(C).
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    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination
    • J21 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Labor Force and Employment, Size, and Structure
    • J22 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Time Allocation and Labor Supply
    • J30 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs - - - General

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