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Gender: An Historical Perspective

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  • Giuliano, Paola

    (University of California, Los Angeles)

Abstract

Social attitudes toward women vary significantly across societies. This chapter reviews recent empirical research on various historical determinants of contemporary differences in gender roles and gender gaps across societies, and how these differences are transmitted from parents to children and therefore persist until today. We review work on the historical origin of differences in female labor-force participation, fertility, education, marriage arrangements, competitive attitudes, domestic violence, and other forms of difference in gender norms. Most of the research illustrates that differences in cultural norms regarding gender roles emerge in response to specific historical situations, but tend to persist even after the historical conditions have changed. We also discuss the conditions under which gender norms either tend to be stable or change more quickly.

Suggested Citation

  • Giuliano, Paola, 2017. "Gender: An Historical Perspective," IZA Discussion Papers 10931, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
  • Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp10931
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

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    Blog mentions

    As found by EconAcademics.org, the blog aggregator for Economics research:
    1. Gender: An Historical Perspective
      by maximorossi in NEP-LTV blog on 2017-09-28 19:51:39
    2. Gender: An Historical Perspective
      by maximorossi in NEP-LTV blog on 2018-05-17 19:58:24

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    Cited by:

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    2. Eder, Christoph & Halla, Martin, 2020. "Economic origins of cultural norms: The case of animal husbandry and bastardy," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 125(C).
    3. Perugini, Cristiano & Vladisavljević, Marko, 2019. "Gender inequality and the gender-job satisfaction paradox in Europe," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 60(C), pages 129-147.
    4. Jaanika Meriküll & Maryna Tverdostup, 2020. "The Gap That Survived The Transition: The Gender Wage Gap Over Three Decades In Estonia," University of Tartu - Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Working Paper Series 127, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, University of Tartu (Estonia).
    5. Diva Dhar & Tarun Jain & Seema Jayachandran, 2018. "Reshaping Adolescents' Gender Attitudes: Evidence from a School-Based Experiment in India," NBER Working Papers 25331, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    6. Andreas Menzel & Christopher Woodruff, 2019. "Gender Wage Gaps and Worker Mobility: Evidence from the Garment Sector in Bangladesh," NBER Working Papers 25982, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    7. Baranov, Victoria & de Haas, Ralph & Grosjean, Pauline, 2018. "Men. Roots and Consequences of Masculinity Norms," Discussion Paper 2018-041, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research.
    8. Vincent Leyaro & Pablo Selaya & Neda Trifkovic, 2017. "Fishermen’s wives: On the cultural origins of violence against women," WIDER Working Paper Series 205, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    9. Victor Gay, 2017. "The Legacy of the Missing Men: The Long-Run Impact of World War I on Female Labor Force Participation," 2017 Papers pga905, Job Market Papers.
    10. Kosec, Katrina & Mo, Cecilia Hyunjung & Schmidt, Emily & Song, Jie, 2021. "Perceptions of relative deprivation and women’s empowerment," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 138(C).
    11. Vincent Leyaro & Pablo Selaya & Neda Trifkovi?, 2017. "Fishermen's wives: On the cultural origins of violence against women," WIDER Working Paper Series wp-2017-205, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    12. Alessie, Rob & Bucher-Koenen, Tabea & Lusardi, Annamaria & Van Rooij, Maarten, 2021. "Fearless Woman: Financial Literacy and Stock Market Participation," CEPR Discussion Papers 15913, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    13. Afridi, Farzana & Bishnu, Monisankar & Mahajan, Kanika, 2020. "Gendering Technological Change: Evidence from Agricultural Mechanization," IZA Discussion Papers 13712, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    14. Huichao Du & Yun Xiao & Liqiu Zhao, 2021. "Education and gender role attitudes," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 34(2), pages 475-513, April.
    15. María José Torres Herrera, 2020. "¿Interactuar o no interactuar? Un estudio experimental sobre expresiones de género," Documentos CEDE 018365, Universidad de los Andes - CEDE.
    16. Pierre-Richard Agénor, 2018. "A Theory of Social Norms, Women's Time Allocation, and Gender Inequality in the Process of Development," Centre for Growth and Business Cycle Research Discussion Paper Series 237, Economics, The University of Manchester.
    17. Zuazu-Bermejo, Izaskun, 2020. "Graduates’ opium? Cultural values, religiosity and gender segregation by field of study," OSF Preprints yn23j, Center for Open Science.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    historical persistence; cultural transmission; gender;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • N0 - Economic History - - General
    • Z1 - Other Special Topics - - Cultural Economics
    • J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination

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