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Gender and Culture

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  • Giuliano, Paola

Abstract

This paper reviews the literature on gender and culture. Gender gaps in various outcomes (competitiveness, labor force participation, and performance in mathematics, amongst many others) show remarkable differences across countries and tend to persist over time. The economics literature initially explained these differences by looking at standard economic variables such as the level of development, women’s education, the expansion of the service sector, and discrimination. More recent literature has argued that gender differences in a variety of outcomes could reflect underlying cultural values and beliefs. This article reviews the literature on the relevance of culture in the determination of different forms of gender gap. I examine how differences in historical situations could have been relevant in generating gender differences and the conditions under which gender norms tend to be stable or to change over time, emphasizing the role of social learning. Finally, I review the role of different forms of cultural transmission in shaping gender differences, distinguishing between channels of vertical transmission (the role of the family), horizontal transmission (the role of peers), and oblique transmission (the role of teachers or role models).

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  • Giuliano, Paola, 2020. "Gender and Culture," CEPR Discussion Papers 15185, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  • Handle: RePEc:cpr:ceprdp:15185
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    Cited by:

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    2. Takeshi Murooka & Yuichi Yamamoto, 2021. "Misspecified Bayesian Learning by Strategic Players: First-Order Misspecification and Higher-Order Misspecification," OSIPP Discussion Paper 21E008, Osaka School of International Public Policy, Osaka University.
    3. Susan Offutt & Jill McCluskey, 2022. "How women saved agricultural economics," Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy, John Wiley & Sons, vol. 44(1), pages 4-22, March.
    4. Deißler, Luzia Karin & Krause, Henning & Grote, Ulrike, 2021. "Gender Dynamics and Food Security in the Kenyan African Indigenous Vegetables Supply Chain," 2021 Conference, August 17-31, 2021, Virtual 314983, International Association of Agricultural Economists.
    5. Elena Grinza & Francesco Devicienti & Mariacristina Rossi & Davide Vannoni, 2017. "How Entry into Parenthood Shapes Gender Role Attitudes: New Evidence from Longitudinal UK Data," Working papers 042, Department of Economics and Statistics (Dipartimento di Scienze Economico-Sociali e Matematico-Statistiche), University of Torino.
    6. Jan Gromadzki & Przemysław Siemaszko, 2022. "#IamLGBT: Social Networks and Coming Out," IBS Working Papers 06/2022, Instytut Badan Strukturalnych.
    7. Kym Anderson & Signe Nelgen, 2021. "Internationalization of winegrape varieties and its implications for terroir-based cultural assets," Wine Economics Research Centre Working Papers 2021-04, University of Adelaide, Wine Economics Research Centre.
    8. Lundberg, Shelly, 2022. "Gender Economics: Dead-Ends and New Opportunities," IZA Discussion Papers 15217, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    9. Marcén, Miriam & Morales, Marina, 2021. "Culture and the cross-country differences in the gender commuting gap," Journal of Transport Geography, Elsevier, vol. 96(C).
    10. Ulugbek Aminjonov & Olivier Bargain & Maira Colacce & Luca Tiberti, 2022. "Culture, Intra-household Distribution and Individual Poverty," Working Papers - Economics wp2022_21.rdf, Universita' degli Studi di Firenze, Dipartimento di Scienze per l'Economia e l'Impresa.
    11. Alice Bertoletti & Marta Cannistrà & Melisa Diaz Lema & Chiara Masci & Anna Mergoni & Lidia Rossi & Mara Soncin, 2023. "The Determinants of Mathematics Achievement: A Gender Perspective Using Multilevel Random Forest," Economies, MDPI, vol. 11(2), pages 1-20, January.
    12. Sara Ain Tommar & Olga Kolokolova & Roberto Mura, 2022. "When Paid Work Gives in to Unpaid Care Work: Evidence from the Hedge Fund Industry Under COVID-19," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 68(8), pages 6250-6267, August.
    13. Liwen Chen & Bobby W. Chung & Guanghua Wang, 2023. "Stay-at-Home Peer Mothers and Gender Norms: Short-run Effects on Educational Outcomes," Working Papers 2023-03, University of South Florida, Department of Economics.
    14. Duchini, Emma & Simion, Stefania & Turrell, Arthur, 2020. "Pay Transparency and Cracks in the Glass Ceiling," The Warwick Economics Research Paper Series (TWERPS) 1311, University of Warwick, Department of Economics.
    15. Joanne Haddad, 2022. "Settlers and Norms," Working Papers ECARES 2022-02, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
    16. Wu, Jiabin & Zhang, Hanzhe, 2021. "Preference evolution in different matching markets," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 137(C).
    17. Bursztyn, Leonardo & Cappelen, Alexander & Tungodden, Bertil & Voena, Alessandra & Yanagizawa-Drott, David, 2023. "How Are Gender Norms Perceived?," Discussion Paper Series in Economics 5/2023, Norwegian School of Economics, Department of Economics.
    18. Liwen Chen & Bobby Chung & Guanghua Wang, 2022. "Stay-at-Home Peer Mothers and Gender Norms: Short-run Effects on Educational Outcomes," Working Papers 2022-039, Human Capital and Economic Opportunity Working Group.
    19. Bellani, Luna & Biswas, Kumar & Fehrler, Sebastian & Marx, Paul & Sabarwal, Shwetlena & Al-Zayed Josh, Syed Rashed, 2023. "Social Norms and Female Labor Force Participation in Bangladesh: The Role of Social Expectations and Reference Networks," IZA Discussion Papers 16006, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Gender; Culture; Social norms;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • A13 - General Economics and Teaching - - General Economics - - - Relation of Economics to Social Values
    • J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination
    • Z1 - Other Special Topics - - Cultural Economics

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