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Implicit Stereotypes: Evidence from Teachers’ Gender Bias

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  • Michela Carlana

Abstract

I study whether exposure to teacher stereotypes, as measured by the Gender-Science Implicit Association Test, affects student achievement. I provide evidence that the gender gap in math performance, defined as the score of boys minus the score of girls in standardized tests, substantially increases when students are assigned to math teachers with stronger gender stereotypes. Teacher stereotypes induce girls to underperform in math and self-select into less demanding high schools, following the track recommendation of their teachers. These effects are at least partially driven by lower self-confidence on math ability of girls exposed to gender-biased teachers. Stereotypes impair the test performance of girls, who end up failing to achieve their full potential. I do not detect statistically significant effects on student outcomes of literature teacher stereotypes.

Suggested Citation

  • Michela Carlana, 2019. "Implicit Stereotypes: Evidence from Teachers’ Gender Bias," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 134(3), pages 1163-1224.
  • Handle: RePEc:oup:qjecon:v:134:y:2019:i:3:p:1163-1224.
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    Cited by:

    1. Owen, Ann L. & Wei, Andrew, 2020. "Sexism, Social Outcomes, and the Gender Wage Gap," MPRA Paper 102474, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    2. Fenske, James & Castagnetti, Alessandro & Sharma, Karmini, 2020. "Attribution Bias by Gender : Evidence from a Laboratory Experiment," CAGE Online Working Paper Series 452, Competitive Advantage in the Global Economy (CAGE).
    3. Sule Alan & Enes Duysak & Elif Kubilay & Ipek Mumcu, 2020. "Social Exclusion and Ethnic Segregation in Schools: The Role of Teacher's Ethnic Prejudice," Working Papers 2020-044, Human Capital and Economic Opportunity Working Group.
    4. Thomas Breda & Julien Grenet & Marion Monnet & Clémentine van Effenterre, 2020. "Do Female Role Models Reduce the Gender Gap in Science? Evidence from French High Schools," Working Papers halshs-01713068, HAL.
    5. Alberto Alesina & Michela Carlana & Eliana La Ferrara & Paolo Pinotti, 2018. "Revealing Stereotypes: Evidence from Immigrants in Schools," NBER Working Papers 25333, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    6. Fernando Saltiel, 2019. "What's Math Got to Do With It? Multidimensional Ability and the Gender Gap in STEM," 2019 Meeting Papers 1201, Society for Economic Dynamics.
    7. Paredes, Valentina & Paserman, M. Daniele & Pino, Francisco J., 2020. "Does Economics Make You Sexist?," IZA Discussion Papers 13223, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    8. Kondylis,Florence & Legovini,Arianna & Vyborny,Kate & Zwager,Astrid Maria Theresia & Cardoso De Andrade,Luiza, 2020. "Demand for Safe Spaces : Avoiding Harassment and Stigma," Policy Research Working Paper Series 9269, The World Bank.
    9. Peter Siminski & Rhiannon Yetsenga, 2020. "Rethinking Specialization and the Sexual Division of Labor in the 21st Century," Working Paper Series 2020/04, Economics Discipline Group, UTS Business School, University of Technology, Sydney.
    10. Simone Balestra & Aurelien Sallin & Stefan C. Wolter, 2020. "High-Ability Influencers? The Heterogeneous Effects of Gifted Classmates," Economics of Education Working Paper Series 0170, University of Zurich, Department of Business Administration (IBW).
    11. KatharinaHeisig, 2019. "Vom Sinn einer geschlechtsneutralen Erziehung und Bildung," ifo Dresden berichtet, ifo Institute - Leibniz Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich, vol. 27(02), pages 12-16, April.
    12. Brock, Michelle & de Haas, Ralph, 2020. "Discriminatory Lending: Evidence from Bankers in the Lab," CEPR Discussion Papers 14340, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    13. Macchiavello, Rocco & Menzel, Andreas & Rabbani, Atonu & Woodruff, Christopher, 2020. "Challenges of Change: An Experiment Promoting Women to Managerial Roles in the Bangladeshi Garment Sector," CEPR Discussion Papers 15085, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    14. Victor Lavy & Rigissa Megalokonomou, 2019. "Persistency in Teachers’ Grading Bias and Effects on Longer-Term Outcomes: University Admissions Exams and Choice of Field of Study," NBER Working Papers 26021, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    15. Andrea Mangani, 0. "Media bias against women in music: an empirical analysis of Italian music magazines," Economia Politica: Journal of Analytical and Institutional Economics, Springer;Fondazione Edison, vol. 0, pages 1-20.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination
    • J24 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Human Capital; Skills; Occupational Choice; Labor Productivity
    • I24 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Education and Inequality

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