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Gender Culture and Gender Gap in Employment

  • Pamela Campa
  • Alessandra Casarico
  • Paola Profeta

This paper analyzes to what extent gender culture affects gender gap in employment. Drawing on Italian data, we measure culture by building two indices: one based on individual attitudes, as done in the existing literature; one based on firms’ attitudes. Firms’ beliefs, which express their set of ideas, values and norms, though generally neglected, are as important as individuals’ attitudes to explain female labor market outcomes. Using an instrumental variable analysis, we show that our index of gender culture based on firms’ attitudes is significant in explaining gender gap in employment in Italian provinces. We show that the same holds when culture is measured with reference to individual attitudes.

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File URL: http://www.cesifo-group.de/portal/page/portal/DocBase_Content/WP/WP-CESifo_Working_Papers/wp-cesifo-2009/wp-cesifo-2009-08/cesifo1_wp2738.pdf
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Paper provided by CESifo Group Munich in its series CESifo Working Paper Series with number 2738.

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Date of creation: 2009
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Handle: RePEc:ces:ceswps:_2738
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  1. Guido Tabellini, 2006. "Culture and institutions: economic development in the regions of Europe," Levine's Working Paper Archive 321307000000000241, David K. Levine.
  2. Giuliano, Paola, 2006. "Living Arrangements in Western Europe: Does Cultural Origin Matter?," IZA Discussion Papers 2042, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  3. Douglas Staiger & James H. Stock, 1997. "Instrumental Variables Regression with Weak Instruments," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 65(3), pages 557-586, May.
  4. Algan, Yann & Cahuc, Pierre, 2007. "Social Attitudes and Economic Development: An Epidemiological Approach," CEPR Discussion Papers 6403, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  5. Bjerk, David & Han, Seungjin, 2005. "Assortative Marriage and the Effects of Government Homecare Subsidy Programs on Gender Wage and Participation Inequality," Microeconomics.ca working papers bjerk-05-11-21-10-55-45, Vancouver School of Economics, revised 06 Sep 2006.
  6. Guiso, Luigi & Sapienza, Paola & Zingales, Luigi, 2006. "Does Culture Affect Economic Outcomes?," CEPR Discussion Papers 5505, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  7. Alberto Alesina & Paola Giuliano, 2007. "The Power of the Family," NBER Working Papers 13051, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  8. Daniela Del Boca & Marilena Locatelli, 2006. "The Determinants of Motherhood and Work Status: a Survey," CHILD Working Papers wp15_06, CHILD - Centre for Household, Income, Labour and Demographic economics - ITALY.
  9. Daniela Del Boca & Silvia Pasqua & Chiara Pronzato, 2004. "Employment and Fertility Decisions in Italy, France and the U.K," CHILD Working Papers wp08_04, CHILD - Centre for Household, Income, Labour and Demographic economics - ITALY.
  10. Raquel Fernandez, 2007. "Women, Work, and Culture," NBER Working Papers 12888, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  11. Fernández, Raquel, 2007. "Women, Work and Culture," CEPR Discussion Papers 6153, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  12. Francois, Patrick, 1998. "Gender discrimination without gender difference: theory and policy responses," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 68(1), pages 1-32, April.
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