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Gender Culture and Gender Gap in Employment

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  • Pamela Campa
  • Alessandra Casarico
  • Paola Profeta

Abstract

This paper analyzes to what extent gender culture affects gender gap in employment. Drawing on Italian data, we measure culture by building two indices: one based on individual attitudes, as done in the existing literature; one based on firms’ attitudes. Firms’ beliefs, which express their set of ideas, values and norms, though generally neglected, are as important as individuals’ attitudes to explain female labor market outcomes. Using an instrumental variable analysis, we show that our index of gender culture based on firms’ attitudes is significant in explaining gender gap in employment in Italian provinces. We show that the same holds when culture is measured with reference to individual attitudes.

Suggested Citation

  • Pamela Campa & Alessandra Casarico & Paola Profeta, 2009. "Gender Culture and Gender Gap in Employment," CESifo Working Paper Series 2738, CESifo Group Munich.
  • Handle: RePEc:ces:ceswps:_2738
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Vincenzo Galasso & Paola Profeta & Chiara Pronzato & Francesco Billari, 2017. "Information and Women’s Intentions: Experimental Evidence About Child Care," European Journal of Population, Springer;European Association for Population Studies, vol. 33(1), pages 109-128, February.
    2. repec:eee:poleco:v:49:y:2017:i:c:p:24-46 is not listed on IDEAS
    3. Bertocchi, Graziella & Bozzano, Monica, 2016. "Women, medieval commerce, and the education gender gap," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 44(3), pages 496-521.
    4. Piazzalunga, Daniela, 2017. "The Gender Wage Gap among College Graduates in Italy," IZA Discussion Papers 11045, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    5. John C. Anyanwu, 2013. "Characteristics and Macroeconomic Determinants of Youth Employment in Africa," African Development Review, African Development Bank, vol. 25(2), pages 107-129, June.
    6. Mirco Tonin & Jackline Wahba, 2015. "The Sources of the Gender Gap in Economics Enrolment," CESifo Economic Studies, CESifo, vol. 61(1), pages 72-94.
    7. Monica Bozzano, 2014. "Assessing Gender Inequality among Italian Regions: The Italian Gender Gap Index," Rivista di Politica Economica, SIPI Spa, issue 1, pages 255-300, January-M.
    8. repec:bla:devpol:v:35:y:2017:i:2:p:197-228 is not listed on IDEAS
    9. World Bank, 2011. "Work and Family : Latin American and Caribbean Women in Search of a New Balance
      [Trabajo & familia : mujeres de América Latina y el Caribe en busca de un nuevo equilibrio - Resumen ejecuivo (Vol. 2
      ," World Bank Other Operational Studies 12489, The World Bank.
    10. Marco Caliendo & Frank M. Fossen & Alexander Kritikos & Miriam Wetter, 2015. "The Gender Gap in Entrepreneurship: Not just a Matter of Personality," CESifo Economic Studies, CESifo, vol. 61(1), pages 202-238.
    11. Cilja Harders, 2013. "Engendering peace, conflict and violence," Chapters,in: Handbook of Research on Gender and Economic Life, chapter 32, pages 522-541 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    12. Bozzano, Monica, 2017. "On the historical roots of women's empowerment across Italian provinces: religion or family culture?," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 49(C), pages 24-46.
    13. Rainald Borck, 2014. "Adieu Rabenmutter—culture, fertility, female labour supply, the gender wage gap and childcare," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 27(3), pages 739-765, July.
    14. Audinga Baltrunaite & Alessandra Casarico & Paola Profeta, 2014. "Spill-over Effects of Affirmative Action: Political Representation and the Power of the Elderly," CESifo Working Paper Series 4955, CESifo Group Munich.
    15. Yu-Fu Chen & Michael Funke, 2010. "Booms, Recessions And Financial Turmoil: A Fresh Look At Investment Decisions Under Cyclical Uncertainty," Scottish Journal of Political Economy, Scottish Economic Society, vol. 57(s1), pages 290-317, July.
    16. repec:eee:chieco:v:47:y:2018:i:c:p:116-141 is not listed on IDEAS
    17. Natalia Soboleva, 2014. "Gender Attitudes In The World Of Work: Cross-Cultural Comparison," HSE Working papers WP BRP 46/SOC/2014, National Research University Higher School of Economics.
    18. Maria Alessandra Antonelli & Veronica Grembi, 2014. "Central Targets and local Agendas: Missing Lisbon 2010," Public Finance Research Papers 6, Istituto di Economia e Finanza, DIGEF, Sapienza University of Rome.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    firm’s culture; Italian provinces; instrumental variable;

    JEL classification:

    • J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination

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