Living Arrangements in Western Europe: Does Cultural Origin Matter?
Why are there such large differences in living arrangements across Western European countries? Conventional economic analyses have not been successful in explaining differences in living arrangements and particularly the dramatic increase in the fraction of young adults living with their parents in Mediterranean Europe. This paper presents a cultural interpretation. I argue that the sexual revolution of the 1970s – by liberalizing parental attitudes – had a differential impact on living arrangements in Northern and Southern Europe on account of the closer parent-child ties in Southern Europe. Such an explanation can easily explain both the shift in living arrangements over time and also observed North-South differentials. It receives support from data on the living arrangements of second-generation immigrants in the US. Both in 1970 and 2000, by country of origin, the US living arrangements of second-generation immigrants mimic those in Europe across countries; similarly the changes in the US across time by country of origin mimic the European changes. This duplication of the European pattern in a neutral environment, with the same unemployment benefits, the same welfare code and the same macroeconomic conditions suggests a major role for culture in determining living arrangements.
|Date of creation:||Mar 2006|
|Date of revision:|
|Publication status:||published in: Journal of the European Economic Association, 2007, 5 (5), 927-952|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: |
Phone: +49 228 3894 223
Fax: +49 228 3894 180
Web page: http://www.iza.org
|Order Information:|| Postal: IZA, Margard Ody, P.O. Box 7240, D-53072 Bonn, Germany|
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Carroll, Christopher D & Rhee, Byung-Kun & Rhee, Changyong, 1994. "Are There Cultural Effects on Saving? Some Cross-Sectional Evidence," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 109(3), pages 685-99, August.
- María Dolores Guilló & Antonia Díaz, 2000. "Family Ties And Unemployment," Working Papers. Serie AD 2000-07, Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Económicas, S.A. (Ivie).
- Maite Martínez & J. Ruiz Castillo, .
"The decisions of Spanish youth: A cross-section study,"
Studies on the Spanish Economy
- Maite Martínez-Granado & Javier Ruiz-Castillo, 2002. "The decisions of Spanish youth: A cross-section study," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, vol. 15(2), pages 305-330.
- Neyer, Gerda, 2003. "Family Policies and Low Fertility in Western Europe," Discussion Paper 161, Center for Intergenerational Studies, Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi University.
- Marco Manacorda & Enrico Moretti, 2002.
"Intergenerational transfers and household structure: why do most Italian youths live with their parents?,"
LSE Research Online Documents on Economics
20078, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
- Marco Manacorda & Enrico Moretti, 2002. "Intergenerational Transfers and Household Structure. Why Do Most Italian Youths Live With Their Parents?," CEP Discussion Papers dp0536, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
- Bentolila, Samuel & Ichino, Andrea, 2000.
"Unemployment and Consumption: Are Job Losses Less Painful near the Mediterranean?,"
CEPR Discussion Papers
2539, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Samuel Bentolila & Andrea Ichino, 2000. "Unemployment and Consumption: Are Job Losses Less Painful near the Mediterranean?," CESifo Working Paper Series 372, CESifo Group Munich.
- Bentolila, S. & Ichino, A., 2000. "Unemployment and Consumption: are Job Losses Less Painful Near the Mediterranean?," Papers 0010, Centro de Estudios Monetarios Y Financieros-.
- Akerlof, George A & Yellen, Janet L & Katz, Michael L, 1996. "An Analysis of Out-of-Wedlock Childbearing in the United States," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 111(2), pages 277-317, May.
- David Card & John DiNardo & Eugena Estes, 1998.
"The More Things Change: Immigrants and the Children of Immigrants in the 1940's, the 1970's, and the 1990's,"
JCPR Working Papers
30, Northwestern University/University of Chicago Joint Center for Poverty Research.
- David Card & John DiNardo & Eugena Estes, 2000. "The More Things Change: Immigrants and the Children of Immigrants in the 1940s, the 1970s, and the 1990s," NBER Chapters, in: Issues in the Economics of Immigration, pages 227-270 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- David Card & John DiNardo & Eugena Estes, 1998. "The More Things Change: Immigrants and the Children of Immigrants in the 1940s, the 1970s, and the 1990s," NBER Working Papers 6519, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Becker, Sascha O. & Bentolila, Samuel & Fernandes, Ana & Ichino, Andrea, 2004.
"Job Insecurity and Children’s Emancipation,"
IZA Discussion Papers
1046, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Sascha O. Becker & Samuel Bentolila & Ana Fernandes & Andrea Ichino, 2004. "Job Insecurity and Children's Emancipation," CESifo Working Paper Series 1144, CESifo Group Munich.
- Sascha O. Becker & Samuel Bentolila & Ana Fernandes & Andrea Ichino, 2004. "Job Insecurity And Children'S Emancipation," Working Papers wp2004_04, CEMFI.
- Raquel Fernandez & Alessandra Fogli, 2005.
"Culture: An Empirical Investigation of Beliefs, Work, and Fertility,"
NBER Working Papers
11268, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Alessandra Fogli & Raquel Fernandez, 2009. "Culture: An Empirical Investigation of Beliefs, Work, and Fertility," American Economic Journal: Macroeconomics, American Economic Association, vol. 1(1), pages 146-77, January.
- Fernández, Raquel & Fogli, Alessandra, 2005. "Culture: An Empirical Investigation of Beliefs, Work and Fertility," CEPR Discussion Papers 5089, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Alessandra Fogli & Raquel Fernandez, 2005. "Culture: An Empirical Investigation of Beliefs, Work, and Fertility," Working Papers 05-07, New York University, Leonard N. Stern School of Business, Department of Economics.
- Raquel Fernandez & Alessandra Fogli, 2005. "Culture: an empirical investigation of beliefs, work, and fertility," Staff Report 361, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis.
- G. C. Giannelli & C. Monfardini, 2000. "Joint Decisions on Household Membership and Human Capital Accumulation of Youths: The role of expected carnings and labour market rationing," Working Papers 375, Dipartimento Scienze Economiche, Universita' di Bologna.
- Gerda R. Neyer, 2003. "Family policies and low fertility in Western Europe," MPIDR Working Papers WP-2003-021, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany.
- Lawrence F. Katz & Claudia Goldin, 2000. "Career and Marriage in the Age of the Pill," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 90(2), pages 461-465, May.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp2042. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Mark Fallak)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.